Traffic Zoology

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There is a secret zoo that runs encaged along the roads.

They are liquid, semi-visible goliaths that rage through the streams and chunks of ordinary traffic, with the effervescent tendrils of mile-long tales whipping behind them like Chinese dragons. Though composed of hundreds of pounds of steel, glass and plastic, they are able to pass through solid objects. They are bound by the laws of the highway, but not by any conventional notion of time or space.

They are Aggregate Traffic Animals: a menagerie of emergent beasts drawn from the interacting behaviours of many individual human beings driving many individual cars with many individual goals, their collective activity giving rise to something with greater presence, power and purpose than the sum of its constituents. They take on a host of different forms, each to serve a different end.

They are real, and they drive among us.


In his introduction to The Extended Phenotype (Oxford University Press, 1982) enthusiastic evolutionary biology cheerleader and Commodore-hacking pop-science guru Richard Dawkins invites us to consider the Necker Cube Illusion: a two-dimensional image representing two interlocked three-dimensional blocks in which the foreground and background can seem to flip back and forth as the brain fruitlessly seeks the "true" interpretation of the depicted space. This is Dawkins' starting point for a thought experiment in which he blurs the lines between species, their genes and the environment, calling into question the traditional boundaries drawn through biological systems to identify the relevant level of study. To wit, to wank:

We look at life and begin by seeing a collection of interacting individual organisms. We know that they contain smaller units, and we know that they are, in turn, parts of larger composite units, but we fix our gaze on the whole organisms. Then suddenly the image flips. The individual bodies are still there; they have not moved, but they seem to have gone transparent...

In other words, if you are able to de-emphasise the organism itself you are free to appreciate the idea of beaver ponds as artificial lakes generated by beaver genes, or to see a spider's web as an arrangement of silk drawn by DNA. By extending the lines with which we bound the traditional phenotype, we define new organisms, merging technology and individuals into communities the same way that ancient micro-organisms interacting inside bilipid membranes fell into symbiotic lockstep dances to found the first stable cells.

Organelles, cells, bodies, herds: at which level we discern the animal is purely a matter of focus.

This idea of the emergent animal or "super-organism" is hardly particular to Dawkins: William Morton Wheeler remarked on the idea in his 1911 paper "The Ant Colony as an Organism" in a treatment that is every bit as cogent but with considerably less otaku chic than Kevin Kelly's printed-soundbyte manifesto on hive complexity, Out of Control (Perseus Books, 1994). In the words of Kelly:

There is nothing to be found in a beehive that is not submerged in a bee. And yet you can search a bee forever with cyclotron and fluoroscope, and you will never find a hive.

So too can you examine a driver in a car and know nothing about the greater animal in which they both participate when the circumstances are right. Some of the applicable forces can be seen most clearly in the rarified environment of the professional race course, as explored by David Ronfeldt, a senior social scientist at RAND, in his 2002 paper Social Science at 190 MPH on NASCAR's Biggest Superspeedways, where fleeting moments of co-operation between rivals are necessary in order to win. Ronfeldt focuses in particular on the phenomenon of draft line formation, which is similar to the way flocking birds can share aerodynamic advantage. Like iron filings in a magnetic field, the large-scale distribution of opportunistically partnering cars are drawn into predictable macro-scale patterns across the speedway:

Once the racers sort themselves out - after ten to twenty laps - it is common to see a single draft line of four to seven cars running in front, pursued a hundred or so yards back by a second line of cars, all another hundred or so yards ahead of a large pack of cars that may still be running in parallel lines but are doing more dicing than drafting...Cars that run alone, often stuck dangerously between two draft lines, will appear to drift irrevocably backward.

Freed of the bonds of racing's formalism, the Aggregate Traffic Animals are born, rooted in transient symbioses between individual patches of drivers that will crystalise into the organs of the beast. But the circumstances have to be just right for one to emerge. The unholy Hieronymus Bosch-style concert of homicidal applied-shadenfreude that may characterise your urban, intra-urban or sub-urban driving experience is not ripe ground for ATA growth: too frothy.

The sociological and scatological dances of the megalopolis rushhour, too, are beyond the scope of this article, and are at any rate most likely best explored with deep computer simulations using high-tech cellular automata tools with average driver profiles linked to real-world statistics of roadway usage coupled with an army of ten thousand angry ax-wielding orcs battling an equal number of obedient clonetroopers.

Rather, this field is perfect fodder for the amateur ethologist, observing phenomena with a keen eye, an open mind and a sharp pencil. And while much has been written about manipulating traffic waves, the dynamics of traffic jams and phase-transitions in traffic density, very little time has been devoted to the observation and cataloguing of persistent multi-car zoomorphia.

Early Observations

The author first became aware of the existence of ATAs while making his way through the hinterland of Canada on a long, mid-winter solo drive in a decrepit Dodge Charger with no functioning radio. Due to his dangerous penchant for immersive daydreaming in the absence of external stimuli, he began to parasite his driving decisions by locking in behind another car with comparable speed ambitions. By reserving a sliver of awareness for tracking the red brake lights of the "lead" car for changes in speed or direction, the author was able to comfortably enjoy his trance while a hefty burden of road awareness was outsourced to the other driver, causing the front car to function as a sort of early warning mechanism for changing conditions (including the Mounties' speed-traps).

The notion resurfaced while the author was wrestling a dented Volkswagen Rabbit rental down a twisting, pot-holed two-lane jungle highway through the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. As the journey began he found himself hedged inside a short parade of other tourists, all driving their rental cars out of the airport at around the same time at a hesitant pace, breaking frequently to process the unfamiliar leafy darkness ahead. Fearing injury, the author laterally-leapfrogged the indecisive parade and drove on into the murk alone. Remembering his success in the far north, he latched onto the back of a local vehicle (a home-modded convertible Beetle carrying ten people, standing room only), using its varying speed as an indicator of road conditions. Unexpectedly, this move was noticed by several of the other tourists, who began to fight to separate themselves from the melee and join the newer, more surefooted pack that was rapidly pulling ahead...

By the time the author had reached his exit the impromptu fleet of vehicles had become a persistent, homeostatic phenomenon. The fleet had quickly learned to manipulate the spacing between its components in order to remain permeable to faster moving local traffic while defending its integrity against more disruptive external vehicles. Pulses of communication signifying when the passing lane was clear rippled down the chain through a conscientious leaning into the gravel shoulder, assisting in the process of expectorating invaders. Several of the original tourist vehicles ended up being swapped out for other vehicles without rocking the boat. Later on, even the leader was swapped out for another experienced local car.

It was a fetching game, contributing to the welfare of all of its players in an interesting way, but it was not a true ATA. It was too conscious a contrivance to be anything more than a delightful spontaneous social event.

You see, a distributed animal with human components can be very sensitive to perturbations from within. It is only when the conflicting threads of goals, reasoning and competition between individual human minds are quietened into the background noise that the soil can truly be ripe to raise a complex beast. When drivers can fall into a semi-hypnotic state and their herd instincts take over, the seeds are laid for something greater.


While there are thousands of traffic animal breeding grounds along the paved networks of the world, only one driving region has been extensively explored at this time, largely due to budgetary considerations.

The TransCanada Highway is a nearly ideal environment for the production of large-scale ATA phenomena, due in great part to the simplicity of its shape: all cars are moving either westbound or eastbound, streamlining the goals of the drivers in much the same way as the shape of the Daytona superspeedway encourages drafting partnerships (see above). Also, because there are long stretches through lonely wilderness and semi-tundra, nascent traffic animals have a long period in which to mature before coming against obstacles like influxes of new cars or navigating around towns; and because the highway wends its way directly through most of Canada's major cities, it provides a handy litmus test for the homeostatic integrity of a given specimen simply by observing whether or not it makes it through to the other side of the urban area intact.

While daytime ATA formation is not rare, it is under the cover of darkness that development can proceed in a comparatively unfettered fashion. This is due in large part to the more abstract, disconnected experience of interacting with other vehicles merely as points of coloured light. Familiar prejudices and stereotypes -- potential sources of destructive competition -- are smoothed out by the shadows. At least on the basis of visual impressions, a Volvo and a Camaro can enter a system as peers.

Diminished visibility resulting from mild to moderate weather conditions can have a similar equalising effect, but when conditions become too severe drivers tend to clump into packs for safety, leading to pseudo-ATA fleets that are all too conscious social events (as in the Quintana Roo experience).

Show me an autumn stretch of prairie transcontinental highway at twilight, and I will show you the secret zoo of the road.

Typical Morphologies

The most basic form of multi-car life is the Asipetal Caterpillar, also known as a worm. Worms begin when a stable solo vehicle spawns a linear, single-lane chain of vehicles composed of loose monomers joining at the rear (a closely related, but dysfunctional, construct known as an Acropetal Caterpillar grows by adding vehicles to the front of the chain, generally leading to destructive diffusion or autolysis). Short, lithe worms are the fundamental building blocks of healthy ATA tissue. Perverse, long-form worms are the seeds of congestion and death.

The second atomic element of ATA tissue stands in stark contrast to the worm, for it is a fleeting thing, and when it takes concrete form at all it is often manifested as a single car. The Apparent Coxswain is a vehicle that appears, to the conscious or semi-conscious mind of one or more drivers, to be a leader of the worm. When the Apparent Coxswain changes lanes, there is a higher probability that a majority of the worm will follow suit than if the change were initiated by a less trusted vehicle. In many cases each car in a worm perceives the car immediately ahead of it to be the Apparent Coxswain, leading to domino-effect lane-transitions; such formations have high homeostatic integrity because of the worm's ability to "find a new head" should one Apparent Coxswain be lost to the currents. (Please note: the Apparent Coxswain should not be confused with the Virtual Coxswain or the Napoleonic Coxswain, discussed below.)

Formations that achieve such integration become Cholingers: Asipetal Caterpillars with tightly-integrated internal feedback systems of Apparent Coxswains, capable of transmitting information from tip to tail with high fidelity. Cholingers can slither to avoid torn tyres on the road, twitch around slow-moving vehicles, and even slip through packs of alien worms, wild axenes and other traffic froth to arrive on the other side intact.

Of course, not all Cholingers slip through the strangers: sometimes they interact.

Every Cholinger is either benthic or pelagic. Benthic Cholingers travel at a similar rate to the currents of the road, while Pelagic Cholingers travel at a dissimilar rate when compared to other traffic (typically a faster rate). It is possible, however, for a benthic line to be picked up and carried along by a pelagic cousin, leading to a coupled form. This is the first real Aggregate Traffic Animal we will meet tonight: a bilaterally asymmetrical diageotrope known as the Epiphysian Cyclosalp.

Within the body of the Cyclosalp the individual Cholingers are transmuted into a pair of Librigenates -- stretchy, free-flowing tissue that is bounded in space by the relationship with its partner, the accelerating pelagic lobe sliding forward and the steady benthic lobe catching up in a slow-motion slingshot, compressing and expanding between the loose, senseless clumps of other cars. This accordion-like effect might initially seem to be a force tearing the animal apart, rending pelagic from benthic -- and this is indeed what might happen in too rarified an atmosphere -- but when presented with obstacles of any kind, the Librigenates that comprise the Cyclosalp fall back on their Cholinger heritage of local integrity, crystallising en masse to navigate the hazard.

Unfettered, the Epiphysian Cyclosalp is like half a butterfly, its riparian body gilded by a slowly flapping wing of accelerating, gliding Librigenates ebbing and flowing in a stately round. Its insides whorl as partners switch places, benthic turning briefly pelagic, pacer cars joining a rippling pulse of local inertia forward, headlights cross-sweeping.

It is beyond the scope of this article to detail the myriad circumstances that provide seed for the profitable entanglement of multiple Cyclosalpic streams. So diverse are the possibilities that we could fill a Biblical tome without scratching the surface, without revealing the common thread of simplicity upon which the complexity hinges. Suffice to say the larger clade includes such varied forms as the whiplashing Epinastic Tricyclosalp, the many-fingered Dicyclosalp Fimbriatum, and the diaphanous, fleeting wonder of the mile-long Merosporangic Super-Cyclosalp...

Of course, not all Asipetal Caterpillars grow up to become stately Cholingers; instead, they lock into Lego-like bricks of uniform properties called Pycnoblastoids. While short-lived Apiculate Pycnoblastoids (in which the Apparent Coxswain is always the most forward car) are more common, it is the more flexible Laxiflorous Pycnoblastoid (in which the Apparent Coxswain is any car except that most forward) that lives a more fruitful life.

For instance, consider the case of a typical composite entity like a Tripycnoblastic Oomycotum, in which independent pycnoblasts jockey for position internally directly or by proxy through one or more Napoleonic Coxswains (that is, drivers who suffer from the delusion that they are single-handedly responsible for steering/leading their local sub-structure). The domino-line behaviour of an Apiculate Pycnoblastoid makes it too brittle to survive the stresses of being permeated by a competing pycnoblast, whereas the comparatively elastic structure of the Laxifloroid -- imparted due to the inherent time delay involved in co-ordinating with a mid-fleet Apparent Coxswain -- retains a perfect balance of rigidity and looseness, riding a line between orchestration and dissolution that makes composite forms like Oomycota possible.

Pycnoblastic tissue is unusual in that it makes use of some level of awareness on the part of the driver that they are participating in a formation (though drivers are only likely to be aware of the local level of structure). When this awareness reaches a certain level the composite entity is usually destroyed by internal stresses, but occasionally a dissolving multi-pycnoblast will emit a stream of highly energised vehicles -- the Apheresoid Lirellate, a concentrated apiculatoid pycnoblast flung free from the miasma of death to rocket away, using for a coxswain the abandoned carcass itself.

...These are but the fringes of the zoo, the tip of the iceberg.

We have not even touched on the sensitive antennae of the Stipitate Phototaxites fringed with Virtual Coxswains, pseudo-lead cars ready to be sacrificed to trip any trap, the chaotic wrath of the Biflagellate Ableptic Figmo and the fate of the cystidial flotsam locked within them; the weird rhythms of the Cacospysic Super-Barbicanoids and their elaborate dance of shifting coxswains, the majesty of the motorcycle-based Raging Fallaxoid; the menagerie of endless cancers that can grow from unexpectorated papillic granulomae, from cataracts of geriatric nektons, or from service-stations with badly planned driveways.

Further Study

The study of a new order of life is not without its risks, both professional (in terms of reputation) and practical (in terms of being maimed by mis-navigated vehicles). The amateur automotive ethologist must not only have keen skills of observation, but also the fortitude to persevere despite the slings and arrows of dubious dissenters. Like Leeuwenhoek's controversial animalcules and Pasteur's superstition-defying microbes, there will always exist a certain testudinal resistance to new ideas among older quarters. There will be those who doubt the very existence of aggregate vehicular life, or who insist that the zoo of the road dwells in metaphor alone.

The opinions of such sceptics could be changed by a single night spent on a grassy hill overlooking a well-travelled country highway, watching the streams of red and silver lights merge and split, compress and attenuate, roil and interact, fatten and reproduce...

Watch the roads, and see the zoo for yourself. There is no denying its patterns of insectile purpose, its myriad variations in anatomy and configuration, or the orchestrated madness of the low-cost petroleum feeding frenzy. Your own mind, honed by thousands of generations of natural selection to recognise life from non-life, will tell you it is true; the disciplines of careful observation and meticulous classification will tell you how, and why.

Open your eyes, and witness an untapped world.

About The Author

Matthew Hemming is an animator and amateur automotive ethologist based in Toronto, Canada.

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Curious Orange 04.09.2007. 19:53

Can a rabbit recover from myxamatosis? I ask because I just saw a bunny with its eyes sealed sat in the road, and I wasn't sure whether I ought to nudge it into the hedge, out of the way of the traffic, or leave it to a more sudden, possibly less painful death. What percentage of mixy bunnies dies from it?

Please nobody get at me for posting this twice. I'm putting it up both in Pets and in Zoology, so that it is read by people with different expertise.

Curious Orange

Admin 04.09.2007. 19:53

Pet rabbits with it can be treated if it is caught early but it is still iffy as to whether they recover.The best way to protect pet bunnies is to keep their myxomatosis jabs up to date.

Wild rabbits usually die,either from the illness itself or because the illness makes them too slow to escape predators like foxes and hawks.


Curious Orange 04.09.2007. 19:54

Can a rabbit recover from myxamatosis? I ask because I just saw a bunny with its eyes sealed sat in the road, and I wasn't sure whether I ought to nudge it into the hedge, out of the way of the traffic, or leave it to a more sudden, possibly less painful death. What percentage of mixy bunnies dies from it?

Please nobody get at me for posting this twice. I'm putting it up both in Pets and in Zoology, so that it is read by people with different expertise.

Curious Orange

Admin 04.09.2007. 19:54

Rabbits don't actually die from mixi. It's the fact they cant see that will eventually kill them. They run in to road, trees, or they just cant find food as they also lose there smell and taste senses as well. Plus they get shunned by other rabbits. It's an incurable disease in rabbits.


Charlie 12.07.2010. 22:45

Do you have any advice for a aspiring doctor? I'm 15, and about to go into Year 11 (my last year of high school), do you have any advice on any school related topics?
What subjects should I focus on most?
And any other advice is welcome :)
Thank you :)


Admin 12.07.2010. 22:45

You have a very long way to go. The best thing to do now is to ace all of your courses in High School, Not hard to do. A good transcript will help you get into a good university. learn the basics-- math, chemistry,biology. Pay attention in English , because you will not be getting much literature for quite a while. Be active in extracurricular activities, and stay out of trouble. No drugs, no alcohol, not even a traffic ticket.
Once in a University, you are an adult. If you choose not to attend classes, that's your problem. If you choose not to study, OK. About half of the first year class in college never goes on. If you have learned good study habits in HS, you can handle the University level courses. Heavy in sciences, so most just major in a science. You need Chemistry,Math,Physics,some Zoology in the pre-med curriculum. You will be competing with some very bright, very industrious students. If you decide to play a lot, you are lost. Pull a 3.8 or better GPA in college, do well in your MCAT and you have a chance. Just as in HS, stay out of trouble. If the Med School Admissions Committee hears you got busted for drugs, you are a goner. When you are not studying, volunteer at something. It does not have to be medical. They do not want anti-social or asocial folks as doctors.
Med School is the big leagues. There has been quite a screening process over years to pick your class- The wannabes have gradually washed out, and now you are competing with some really smart people. A full time load in college is about 16 credit hours. A semester in Medical School is about 1 and 1/2 years worth of college work. You must be willing to abandon everything else but study most of the time. My freshman class had 88 students . We graduated about half.

Pressure is not off yet- your standing in your Medical School class determines whether you get a sought-after Residency or not. So doing really, really well is important. You will be tired, and unreasonable demands may be made of you. Try not to piss off anyone senior to you. Shoot for the Medical Honor Society, Alpha Omega Alpha.

Residencies may accept you, but they do not have to keep you. So you still have to work hard.
My longest shift was 70 hours. My first year we were scheduled 36 hours on, 12 hours off, but could not go home until our work was done, so a last minute admission sort of spoiled things. The first three months, I would be asleep on the couch before my wife could get to the door to greet me. After a while, I could do 36 hours, come home and go shopping- no problem.

This all sounds pretty awful, but you just handle it. Medicine is not for the weak.
I cannot imagine doing anything else. Yes it is worth it. Hard work, long hours , pay not nearly what everyone thinks, ---still worth it. Good luck !


lin j 29.12.2010. 11:58

Why does my car rear glass cracked without any clue? Why does my car rear glass cracked without any clue?
Here is the situation...

1. Stopped at a traffic light as it's red.
2. A sudden huge and loud explosion was heard behind the car.
3. When to check, nothing had hit the car glass.
4. there were 2 big perfect hole in the center of the rear car glass..
5. Went to checked but no one seem to be able to solve this myth.

Can anyone help me solve this myth please?
It has been a great mystery to me.

thank You.

- from Singapore

lin j

Admin 29.12.2010. 11:58

This zoology dear,not mechanics.


Carly 01.06.2010. 15:00

what subject do i have to be good at to get a degree as a forensic scientist? Array


Admin 01.06.2010. 15:00

It all begins with what you want to do:
medical examiner,
crime laboratory analyst,
crime scene examiner,
forensic engineer

Medical Examiner - The highest pay but you have to be able to handle cutting up dead bodies, 7+ years of college and uncertain work hours. Although there are routine protocols, the ingenious ways people kill people create sufficient variety to combat boredom and provide a problem-solving challenge. The medical examiner usually requires a medical degree. Select a residency that provides a forensic emphasis. A chemistry or biology degree at the undergraduate level is a good major. If at FSU, you should take the crime detection & investigation course as one of your undergraduate electives as you will not have an opportunity for this course at medical school.

The forensic odontologist has similar educational requirements to the medical examiner except in dentistry. They generally are dentists who practice as consultants rather than as full-time forensic scientists.

Crime Laboratory Analyst - Reasonably good pay and you generally work indoors with relatively stable work hours and relatively clean samples but the cases are often quite repetitive and routine. The microanalysis section probably provides the most variety but currently it is being phased out or scaled down in most crime laboratories. It will come back but look for slim pickings during the current "bottom-line" management fad. The crime laboratory usually requires a bachelor's degree in a natural science for any of the specialties. The best degree overall is chemistry. If you are interested in DNA testing, then biology with genetics and biochemistry is required. If you are interested in trace evidence examination, good electives for the chemistry degree include optical mineralogy, microbiology, botany and textile courses. You should, of course, take the crime detection & investigation course as one of your electives. See below for other specific courses available at FSU. Occasionally evidence is encountered that requires other specialties, such as entomology, anthropology, zoology and botany. These areas may be adequate to obtain employment but do not expect to work exclusively in the specialty as not even a large laboratory receives enough evidence in those areas to fill an individual's time. One combination that would probably get you a job in a crime lab would be a major that contained sufficient background to do both forensic archeology and DNA on the samples recovered.

Forensic Engineer - You will deal with traffic accidents, fire investigations, and a variety of wrongful injury cases. The work is much like that of the crime scene examiner but with fewer bodies and better hours and generally much higher pay. You earn that pay by the degree you obtain. The forensic engineer requires an engineering degree. The usual specialties include electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering and traffic engineering. The web site for a local company gives more information as well as the FSU/FAMU School of Engineering.

Crime Scene Examiner - You will work whenever and wherever crime occurs, indoors or outdoors, day or night, and have to be able to deal with dead bodies and other messy situations but there certainly is a lot less routine. The pay is not great but few folk voluntarily leave a crime scene section for other duties. The intellectual challenge is still there and the scientific basis of the field is developing. Some tasks will become more routine and more sophisticated but overall it could be an exciting time for the next decade. The crime scene examiner should have a bachelor's degree either in a natural science with emphasis in law enforcement and crime scene processing or a criminal justice degree with emphasis in natural science. Currently some state agencies have such a requirement and I believe that most agencies soon will. Forensic archeology would be excellent preparation.

If you are interested in psychological profiling, my understanding is that those agencies hiring profilers actually want an investigator / crime scene analyst / psychologist. This means almost a double major in psychology and criminal justice and experience as an investigator. Although the academic part could be accomplished with a major in psychology and a minor in criminology, it could better be accomplished with a psychology undergraduate degree and a criminology master's with electives in psychology. Electives at the undergraduate level should include crime scene processing and the crime detection and investigation course as these are not available at the graduate level. The criminology emphasis should be in law enforcement and forensic science.
Recognize that there are a very, very limited number of jobs available in profiling and none of them involve visions as portrayed on TV. Rather they include science and statistics. Right now you either better


dregj 06.10.2012. 16:01

Red Foxes the great mystery? I live in the city and see this little things at night all the time but where do they go during the day?
Are thier foxey bolt hole in the suburbs we dont know about? Do they simply walk back out to the sticks after raidng bins?Id really like to know.
I know this has been asked before a few times on this site but strangely never actually answered.
i dont want a history on the fox in western europe or a zoology lesson just some information about a little mystery of life


Admin 06.10.2012. 16:01

Yes, they live among us! They have dens under sheds, porches, in abandoned fields and industrial parks where there may be piles of junk or dirt to dig into.

We used to have a family of foxes who lived on our place that was well within the city limits. They had a den in the 2 acres we had. We mowed around the den, leaving long grass around the entrance. They were there for a good 15 years. I now live near the same area, but with more people and traffic. No foxes, but LOTS of bunnies! I have seen 15 bunnies grazing on my lawn in the spring, and several live under my back porch slab. Drives my cat crazy!

Raccoons, Possums, Rats, Skunks, Rabbits, Foxes, Coyotes, and Armadillos (in the southern US) all live happily within the city limits, all year around. They are one of the reasons that even our city dogs and cats need to be vaccinated for rabies regularly! They are also a good reason to have your pets indoors at night to protect them from the predators.


Black Mamba 17.08.2009. 16:25

what is a feeder road? how does it differ from ordinary road? Array

Black Mamba

Admin 17.08.2009. 16:25

It is a road that "feeds" traffic into already established lanes. The slip-road onto a motorway is an example. By the way, this question has nothing to do with zoology.


bree 23.11.2011. 00:48

What city should i live in australia? Alright so I'm wanting to move to Australia for college, I was thinking maybe JCU UQ but there are several JCU campuses. I want to study in zoology.
Here are some things I'm looking for.
Extremely outdoorsy city and much to do. Hiking, biking, zip lining, snorkeling, beautiful oceans and easy to get around on a bike instead of a car. A lot of hill and or mountains and by the ocean. I HATE cold weather so warm year around. Rich with a lot of animals and marine life (dolphins) friendly people. I would rather be around Australians vs tourists. My biggest thing is the scenery and animals. I love being out doors and love nature and animals so that's a must have. I was thing cairns townsville Brisbane or Sydney? ? But I don't know. So based off what I wrote what do you think is the best city for me. And no comments that have to do with immagration. I KNOW WHAT THE REQUIRMENTS ARE. Help pleasee


Admin 23.11.2011. 00:48

Cairns and Townsville are both in the tropics so they have a wet and dry season, Cuclones can come in during the wet and it gets hot and humidBrisbanes weather is so much better. They have semi tropical weather . I would choose Brisbane. Sydney and Brisbane are busy as far as traffic goes . How about Gold coast Perfect and only 1 hour from Brisbane. Perth is a lovely City


Aaron 28.02.2010. 13:19

American and canadian vets, why does their greed allow them to ignore their oath? when american and canadians become vets , they take an oath to protect animals, to ease suffering in animals, not go out of their way to promote pain and suffering. some even giving "discount" to have declawing done, congratulations america and canada you have the only vets in the world that disgust me
declawing is banned in 36 countries around the world, it is also banned in San francisco and los angeles and ogther californian cities, and who opposed it strongly, vets of course, and why? simple their greed outweighed their ethics/ declawing is a multi million dollar business in canada and america, canada i expect it from, where else in the world are harp seals stunned with a pole and hook and skinned alive. one day declawing will be banned, let us hope people who declaw cats never have another pet what is your opinion. on american vets. i feel they would make great traffic wardens, they may even take an oath they can honour


Admin 28.02.2010. 13:19

If someone knew what you were talking about elaine it would be a great help, ever thought of answering the question, I am fully aware american vets are driven by greed, can you deny it, then simply answer the question if you disagree with the facts
or are you simply calling it nonsense because you cannot dispute the facts?
according to your profile you are either studying Zoology, or a graduate in Zoology, and one would assume a close friend of vets, that would explain a lot wouldnt it
rubbishing facts do not make them go away, maybe you would know why vets opposed the law banning declawing in california, do you support the butchery of declawing.
are you aware it is banned in 38 countries, or are zoologists also covering this fact up???


renjilove 10.10.2008. 18:13

Please help me choose the right career? I have asked this before but im gonna elaborate. i cant decide to major in wildlife sciences to become a wildlife biologist or major in zoology and become a zoologist.

Okay, what I want to do is to work with animals of course. I like exotic breeds like tigers, elephants, etc. I am really concerned with captivity (like the stress of it and mental deterioration), tiger trafficking or any animal trafficking for that matter, conservation of endangered species. I am very set in my ways and dont agree with animal testing for many things and I am a vegetarian (just some background on me).

Sorry this is so long but what should I do? I dont know where I want to work although I do like zoos and refuges (the ones that are interested in welfare, not money)

So any advice? People who work in these fields would be great to hear from. And i am going to college next year in MS
i forgot, i am more interested in the animals as a whole and not like bacteria and microscopic organisms. I find these interesting but I want to work with the exotic animals, not just run a bunch of tests all day


Admin 10.10.2008. 18:13

If you plan to become a wildlife biologist, a degree in wildlife sciences or zoology would be a great way to start learning the necessary knowledge and experience for such a career. However, a complete learning experience for each major will possibly include classes in molecular and cellular biology, and biochemistry. I would look at what classes are required by each major, and pick the one you think has the classes you would enjoy the most.

If you are mostly concerned with the policies regarding animal trafficking and testing, perhaps you should consider courses in political science as well in order to give yourself a knowledge of what kinds of laws or policies to focus on.

My advise would be to focus on what you need to learn in order to achieve whatever it is you want to achieve, and choose your major and classes accordingly. It doesn't really matter what the name of the major is.


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