5 Steps to Continuous Process Improvement

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5 Steps to Continuous Process Improvement

By: Chris Anderson

Part One of Creating Well-Defined Processes Series

What if your sales increased from $100,000 to $110,000 per day and your profit increased from $10,000 to $11,000 - did you improve by 10%? The answer might shock you...

Because the answer is no. No improvement occurred. In fact, your process deteriorated. Sure, revenue increased, but is this really an improvement? Let's take a look at the problem in this table.

Let's examine the before and the after scenario. Say, in the before picture, you have sales of $100,000, fixed costs of $20,000 and variable costs of $70,000. Total expenses amount to $90,000, giving you a gross profit of $10,000. In the after picture, sales increase to $110,000, while variable costs rise to $77,000 in addition to $2,000 in Extra Expenses - which give you total expenses of $99,000 and a gross profit of $11,000. In the after picture, remember though, fixed costs are fixed, and do not change with additional revenue. So you should get more than 10% (11.) 8% to be exact) profit from 10% growth.

Extra Expenses Prevent Process Improvement

Here we have the before and the after scenario. You can see that fixed costs are fixed, and do not change with additional revenue. So you should get more than 10% (11.) 8% to be exact) profit from 10% growth.

And notice that in order to maintain a 10% profit we have to spend $2,000 in Extra Expenses. These Extra Expenses represent your process inefficiencies. These expenses could be sales discounts, travel, overtime, or something else. The names don't really matter. What does matter is that we are not improving.

Process Evolution Enables Improvement

Improvement results from process evolution, not from an increase in scale. What's the difference? Scale increases when we hire another person, increase expenses, or purchase more assets in order to acquire or service more business. Process evolution occurs when we change the process and as a result can release hidden capacity and service more business without adding any costs - and this is a form of efficiency. You can measure efficiency with the formula:

Efficiency = Output / Costs

But process evolution is about more than just changing costs. It is about changing time, increasing process velocity, and getting more output from the costs you already have. Cutting costs, by itself, does not evolve a process. In fact, reducing costs, without properly understanding how those costs relate to the process, can actually decrease process evolution (devolution). Let's review an example...

A Cost Reduction and Procedures Training Case Study

A company decreases costs by switching suppliers and using cheaper materials for their manufacturing process. Now the purchasing department is happy they are saving money. The bottom line is starting to look better as profits initially increase. And so this improved the process, right? Well...

But then complaints start rolling in from the field. Products are breaking down faster. Technical support costs rise, and customers start reducing their orders. Not only do profits evaporate, but customer goodwill does too. To offset this, your first reaction might be to switch back to the old supplier. This is much easier and it fixes the immediate problem, but it won't recapture the lost sales, customers and damage to the company's reputation.

But, again, you need to focus on the most important issue. There is a limit to the amount of costs one can reduce in any process - zero. You can't reduce costs below zero. On the other hand, there is no limit to the process potential we can achieve. Process evolution concerns the numerator (the output), not the denominator (the costs) in the efficiency equation above.

Change in Process Evolution = New Output / Old Output


(Assuming costs are held constant)

By focusing on process evolution instead of costs we can continue to increase our output forever. We just have to make sure that the output increases faster than the costs. Then what we have is incremental improvement. But what procedure can use to achieve this?

Process Training

It's all about collecting feedback to set the right priorities for your change process. You need feedback to drive the change process. The more feedback you get the better you will be able to evolve your process. So let's take a look at what your change process needs to include.

  1. Feedback Records with Deficiency Notations
  2. Trend Analysis
  3. Corrective Action Process and Criteria for action
  4. Audit Process
  5. Management Review Process

And then ask yourself the following questions about your change process:

  • Are process feedback records created?
  • Have the feedback records been analyzed for process deficiencies?
  • Are the deficiencies analyzed for statistical significance?
  • Are the deficiencies of statistical significance written up for corrective action?
  • Is corrective/preventive action implemented?
  • Is there an objective review of all processes to ensure the change process is working?
  • Does management review all findings to ensure the change process is working -- and that processes are evolving to meet or exceed organizational requirements?

Next Week: Business Modeling

With these thoughts in mind, you can see how important it is to first define continuous improvement and note how it can actually affect your business. But you can't gather feedback from all processes at once. If you did, that would generate a process overload. So where do you start?

Next time we will show you show how when we discuss business modeling. Business modeling prioritizes which core processes you should improve. It tells you which processes are most important to not only achieve your company goals - but also to survive as a profitable business.

You have permission to publish this article free of charge, as long as the resource box is included with the article. If you do run my article, a courtesy reply to sean@bizmanualz.com would be greatly appreciated. This article is 895 words long including the resource box. Thanks for your interest.

About The Author

Chris Anderson is the managing director of Bizmanualz, Inc. and co-author of policies and procedures manuals, producing the layout, process design and implementation to increase performance.

To learn how to increase your business performance, visit: http://www.bizmanualz.com?src=ART83

Comments

Loretta 10.03.2010. 09:08

How can soil conservation be done? Can anyone give me 5 points on how conservation can be done or the different methods of soil conservation?

Loretta

Admin 10.03.2010. 09:08

1. Plant trees: We all know that the roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. As trees grow tall, they also keep rooting deeper into the soil. As the roots of the trees spread deep into the layers of soil, they contribute to the prevention of soil erosion. Soil that is under a vegetative cover has hardly any chance of getting eroded as the vegetative cover acts as a wind barrier as well.

2. Terraces: Terracing is one of the very good methods of soil conservation. A terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area. Owing to its unique structure, it prevents the rapid surface runoff of water. Terracing gives the landmass a stepped appearance thus slowing the easy washing down of the soil. Dry stonewalling is a method used to create terraces in which stone structures are created without using mortar for binding.

3. No-till farming: When soil is prepared for farming by ploughing it, the process is known as tiling. No-till farming is a way of growing crops without disturbing it through tillage. The process of tilling is beneficial in mixing fertilizers in the soil, shaping it into rows and preparing a surface for sowing. But the tilling activity can lead to compaction of soil, loss of organic matter in soil and the death of the organisms in soil. No-till farming is a way to prevent the soil from being affected by these adversities.

4. Contour ploughing: This practice of farming across the slopes takes into account the slope gradient and the elevation of soil across the slope. It is the method of ploughing across the contour lines of a slope. This method helps in slowing the water runoff and prevents the soil from being washed away along the slope. Contour ploughing also helps in the percolation of water into the soil.

5. Crop rotation: Some pathogens tend to build up in soil if the same crops are cultivated consecutively. Continuous cultivation of the same crop also leads to an imbalance in the fertility demands of the soil. To prevent these adverse effects from taking place, crop rotation is practiced. It is a method of growing a series of dissimilar crops in an area sequentially. Crop rotation also helps in the improvement of soil structure and fertility.
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Mulching, Composting and Vermacasting using worms for the small time gardener are also helpful.

Admin

Tennessee 10.01.2010. 04:12

Is there anyway to actually make your penis bigger without surgeries? PLease no stupid answers

Tennessee

Admin 10.01.2010. 04:12

Yeah her is a way
Jelqing is an ancient Sudanese Arab technique, passed through the ages from father to son. Or is it? This version of history seems to have its inception around the time people started selling "Ancient secrets to enlarge your penis". The validation of this rewrite of history is often traced to the bible.

She doted on their paramours, whose flesh is as the flesh of donkeys, and whose issue is like the issue of horses.

--Ezekiel 23:20
This does not suggest that size or ejaculatory power was as the result of jelqing.

Jelqing (also known as milking) is an exercise designed to force large amounts of blood through the penis, increasing the internal pressure and creating controlled damage or micro-tears in the structure of the penis. This damage will be mostly repaired overnight but overworking or not taking rest days will reduce efficacy. The effects can be to increase length or girth or a combination of the two.


Stroke
The speed of each stroke is extremely important. Stroke times of less than 3 seconds should be avoided. It is very easy to start at a good rate but increase to masturbation speeds if concentration is lost. Timing the stroke rate (either by counting ( one - one thousand, two - one thousand, three - one thousand) or with a watch or metronome is a good way to ensure that the speed is constant.

It is possible to increase the strength of the grip without encouraging a ramping of pressure during the stroke by lengthening the stroke time.

To encourage length gains many people end each stroke in a short light stretch (often unconsciously), very similar to a JAI stretch.



The exercise consists of applying an OK style thumb and forefinger grip encircling the base of the lubricated partially erect penis, restricting blood flow, and pulling this grip forward toward the glans. Once one hand has reached the glans the same grip and motion is applied with the second hand. This process is repeated for a number of strokes in a continuous milking motion. Each stroke should take no less than three seconds.

It is important that jelqing is proceeded with and followed by a warm wrap, to relax the tissues and minimize chances of injury.

Step By Step Jelqing
1.Apply OK grip at base with first hand
2.stroke forward toward the glans
3.Apply OK grip with second hand and release first hand
4.stroke forward toward the glans
5.Apply OK grip at base with first hand and release second hand
6.Repeat from 2 to 5

Jelq Constituents
Jelqing is, on the face of it, simple but it can take a while to master the intricacies of the exercise and improvements will be made many months after starting. Initially your penis will need to become accustomed to the pressure levels and so you should aim to build the intensity and duration of the exercise over time. This will allow for the blood supply to the penis to develop and the tissues to become used to the exercise.


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Erection Level
The level of erection is important. If you Jelq with too low an erection level or allow your erection to subside for too long before correction, the pressure during the progression of each stroke will vary greatly. The start of the stroke will be low pressure and the end of the stroke will be a much higher pressure. This will encourage more girth development toward the glans and eventually result in a baseball bat shape developing.

The minimum erection level you should allow is 40%-50%. In general, the greater the erection, the more effect on girth. Likewise, the lower the erection, the more effect on length. That said, some gain length easily and others only find girth increases. Jelqing with erections higher than 80% should be avoided initially.


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Grip
The grip can be applied in many ways. However it is applied, there are some important common factors.

Grip Factors
?Strength - Matching strength and diameter of the grip to erection level to avoid changing pressure as a stroke progresses.
?Consistency - The grip should be consistent throughout the stroke. It is easy to subconsciously increase or rotate the grip part way through a stroke.
?Starting at the base - The grip should be attached as low down as possible
The standard OK grip can be applied in two ways, palms up (a standard OK) and palms down (an overhand OK). Though the grip is generally referred to as an OK grip there is no requirement for the forefinger and thumb to meet, what is important is that it traps blood effectively. To that end if it works to grip the end of the forefinger with the thumb or to use thumb and forefinger in a U shaped grip it is important to proceed with what works best. A U shaped (pinch grip) applied vertically will tend to work the corpora carvenosa (CC) most, encouraging girth gains.

If there is no intention to attempt bend correc

Admin

hemant 06.05.2011. 09:26

What are the basic steps in gaining ISO 9001 Registration? Me very excited, need more information regarding my question,please assist me..very very thank in advance..

hemant

Admin 06.05.2011. 09:26

1.Make the decision to 'get ISO'. This needs commitment from 'top management' - the person or people in charge.

2.Appoint someone as project manager. It is a project, so make sure someone has the responsibility to manage it internally. Allocate resources. You'll need to decide whether to use a consultant, or do it yourself.

3.Establish what the tasks are to get you there. You'll probably have some bits of your quality system in place already, but other things required by the Standard may not be. Find out where you are now, versus where you should be: a 'gap analysis'. Then make a plan of what to do, who will do it and when.

4.Now improve and develop your system: fill the gaps from the Gap Analysis, revising, adding or improving where you need to. This includes identifying your processes, documenting your system, and making all the improvements necessary to meet the requirements of the Standard. You'll use the 'PDCA' or continuous improvement cycle to do this.

5.This is the stage which takes the most time & effort. Make sure you involve people throughout, so that they understand and use the system, and a good reason for them to be involved.

6.Review and audit your own system internally. You will find some problems (if you don't, you aren't auditing properly). Resolve the issues you find, using your formal correction procedure/s to do it.

7.Select the certifier who will audit you, make a formal application and agree on the schedule for audit.

8.Undergo the external audit. During this, the certifier (external auditor) audits your quality system against all of the specific requirements of ISO 9001.

Get the certificate
The certificate will arrive a bit later, after the audit.

Admin

stay.twilight 16.12.2007. 04:47

definitions for the following terms that relate to industrialization? 1. commercial expansion
2. subsistence farming
3. mass production
4. cottage industry
5. laissez-faire economics
6. division of labor
7. enclosure movement
8. socialism
9. labor union
10. factory system
11. utilitarianism
12. consumerism
13. social reform
14. interchangeable parts

stay.twilight

Admin 16.12.2007. 04:47

Too many questions for an attempt to earn 2 0r 12 points. Anyways, I give definitions and some cases a little more for better understanding..
1. commercial expansion
is the expansion of an economic activity (like agriculture or home-knit sweaters) so that extra output over the subsistence requirement can be sold in the market with a view to earn income in the form of profit.
2. subsistence farming
is Farming that provides enough food for the farmer and his family but not enough for sale. By comparison, commercial farming is farming that provides products for sale.
Form of farming in which nearly all the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and his family, leaving little surplus for sale or trade. Preindustrial agricultural peoples throughout the world practiced subsistence farming. As urban centers grew, agricultural production became more specialized and commercial farming developed, with farmers producing a sizable surplus of certain crops, which they traded for manufactured goods or sold for cash. Subsistence farming persists today in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing areas.
3. mass production
Manufacturing or processing of uniform products in large quantities using interchangeable parts and machinery. Mass production is either a wholly automated process or a series of short, repetitive procedures i.e., manufacture of goods in large quantities by machinery and by use of techniques such as the assembly line and division of labor.
Application of the principles of specialization, division of labour, and standardization of parts to the manufacturing of goods on a large scale. Modern mass-production methods have led to such improvements in the cost, quality, quantity, and variety of goods available that the largest global population in history is now sustained at the highest general standard of living ever. The requirements for mass production of a particular product include the existence of a market large enough to justify a large investment; a product design that can use standardized parts (see interchangeable parts) and processes; a physical layout that minimizes materials handling; division of labour into simple, short, repetitive steps (see time-and-motion study); continuous flow of work; and tools designed specifically for the tasks to be performed. See also assembly line.
4. cottage industry
A usually small-scale industry carried on at home by family members using their own equipment.
A small, loosely organized, yet flourishing complex of activity or industry: ?The study of Gandhi has become a virtual cottage industry in the last 30 years, producing schools, museums, foundations and more than 400 biographies?
"Cottage industries" is a term that was used prevalently during the eighteenth and nineteenth and centuries to describe the home-based system of manufacturing. This term is also used today to refer to goods or services that are produced at home. Sewing, craft production, sales and marketing, typing, bookkeeping, and auto repair are just a fewexamples of home-based employment.
5. laissez-faire economics
An economic doctrine that opposes governmental regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws.
Noninterference in the affairs of others.
[French : laissez, second person pl. imperative of laisser, to let, allow + faire, to do.]
Laissez-faire (IPA: [l?se f?r]) is a French phrase meaning "let do" or "hands off". From the French diction first used by the 18th century physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it became used as a synonym for strict free market economics during the early and mid-19th century. It is generally understood to be a doctrine that maintains that private initiative and production are best allowed to roam free, opposing economic interventionism and taxation by the state beyond that which is perceived to be necessary to maintain peace, security, and property rights.[1] In this view, it is not the job of the state to intervene in the economy in an attempt to reduce inequality, poverty or protect worker's rights (except to the extent that they are covered under property rights). Free-market anarchists take the idea to its full length by opposing all taxation. Laissez-faire also embodies free trade, namely that a state should not use protectionist measures, such as tariffs, in order to curtail trade through national frontiers. In the early stages of European and American economic theory, laissez-faire economic policy was contrasted with mercantilist economic policy, which had been the dominant system of the United Kingdom, Spain, France and other European countries, during their rise to power.The term laissez-faire is often used interchangeably with the term "free market." Some use the term laissez-faire to refer to "let do, let pass" attitude for matters outside of economics. Laissez-faire is associated with classical liberalism, libertarianism, and Objectivism.[citation needed] It was originally introduced in the English-language world in 1774, by George Whatley, in the book Principles of Trade, which was co-authored with Benjamin Franklin. Classical economists, such as Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and David Ricardo did not use the term?Bentham did, but only with the advent of the Anti-Corn Law League did the term receive much of its (English) meaning.
The laissez-faire means that the neoclassical school of economic thought holds a pure or economically liberal market view: that the free market is best left to its own devices, and that it will dispense with inefficiencies in a more deliberate and quick manner than any legislating body could. The basic idea is that less government interference in private economic decisions such as pricing, production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services makes for a better (more efficient) economy. Economist Adam Smith in his book 'Wealth of Nations' argued that the invisible hand of the market would guide people to act in the public interest by following their own self-interest, since the only way to make money would be through voluntary exchange, and thus the only way to get the people's money was to give the people what they want. Smith pointed out that one does not get one's dinner by appealing to the brother-love of the butcher, the farmer or the baker. Rather one appeals to their self interest, and pays them for their labour.
6. division of labor
is Separation of the work force into different categories of labor; dividing the work required to produce a product into a number of different tasks that are performed by different workers. ie, Dividing a job into many specialized parts, with a single worker or a few workers assigned to each part. Division of labor is important to mass production.
Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. Historically the growth of a more and more complex division of labour is closely associated with the growth of trade, the rise of capitalism, and of the complexity of industrialisation processes. Later, the division of labour reached the level of a scientifically-based management practice with the time and motion studies associated with Taylorism. For specialisation to be productive, it requires: Enough demand on accounted mass production of A standard product.
7. enclosure movement
Division or consolidation of communal lands in Western Europe into the carefully delineated and individually owned farm plots of modern times. Before enclosure, farmland was under the control of individual cultivators only during the growing season; after harvest and before the next growing season, the land was used by the community for the grazing of livestock and other purposes. In England the movement for enclosure began in the 12th century and proceeded rapidly from 1450 to 1640; the process was virtually complete by the end of the 19th century. In the rest of Europe, enclosure made little progress until the 19th century. Common rights over arable land have now been largely eliminated.
8. socialism
Any of various theories or systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy. or,
The stage in Marxist-Leninist theory intermediate between capitalism and communism, in which collective ownership of the economy under the dictatorship of the proletariat has not yet been successfully achieved.
9. labor union
is An organization of wage earners formed for the purpose of serving the members' interests with respect to wages and working conditions. or, An organization of workers formed to promote collective bargaining with employers over wages, hours, fringe benefits, job security, and working conditions.
labor union, association of workers for the purpose of improving their economic status and working conditions through collective bargaining with employers. Historically there have been two chief types of unions: the horizontal, or craft, union, in which all the members are skilled in a certain craft (e.g., the International Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America); and the vertical, or industrial, union, composed of workers in the same industry or industries regardless of their particular skills (e.g., the United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America). A company union is an employer-controlled union having no affiliation with other labor organizations.
10. factory system
is A concentration of the processes of manufacturing?fixed capital, raw material, and labour?under one roof, in order to provide the mass production of a standardized product or products. The factory system superseded cottage industry because it made possible economies of scale, a standardized product, and the deskilling of labour, which increased efficiency and increased the power of the employer. Mass production also meant that specialized machines could be used to their maximum effect.
The Factory system was a method of manufacturing first adopted in England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and later spreading abroad. Fundamentally, each worker created a separate part of the total assembly of a product, thus increasing the efficiency of factories. Workers, paid by wage, and machines were brought together in a central factory. All the processes of production would be carried out under one roof, and would continue as long as it was practical. Inconclusively, Richard Arkwright is the person credited with being the brains behind the growth of factories. After he patented his spinning frame in 1769, he created the first true factory at Cromford, near Derby, England. The factory system was a new way of organizing labor made necessary by the development of machines which were too large to house in a worker's cottage. Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, that is, from dawn to dusk, six days per week. The factory system first spread outside of England when Samuel Slater brought the secret of the water frame to the United States.
11. utilitarianism
The belief that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utility. or,
The ethical theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. or,
The quality of being utilitarian: housing of bleak utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its contribution to overall utility. It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome. Utility ? the good to be maximized ? has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain), though preference utilitarians like Peter Singer define it as the satisfaction of preferences. Utilitarians tend to consider the interests of any entity capable of experiencing pleasure or pain.
The most famous definition of utilitarianism equates it with the belief that, ?That action is best which procures the greatest happiness of the greatest number?. Although generally associated with Bentham, who quoted it with approval, the statement was first made by Francis Hutcheson in his Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725). The doctrine that actions should be judged on their capacity to produce happiness is an ancient one, recognizable as the classical Greek eudaemonism. However, it was only in the secular and commercial milieu of eighteenth-century Britain that it became an important and respectable philosophy, if not yet a dominant one.
12. consumerism
is The movement seeking to protect and inform consumers by requiring such practices as honest packaging and advertising, product guarantees, and improved safety standards. or,
The theory that a progressively greater consumption of goods is economically beneficial. or
Attachment to materialistic values or possessions: deplored the rampant consumerism of contemporary society.
Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption. It is often associated with criticisms of consumption starting with Karl Marx and Thorstein Veblen.In economics, consumerism can also refer to economic policies that place an emphasis on consumption, and, in an abstract sense, the belief that the free choice of consumers should dictate the economic structure of a society.
Often, consumerism also means Public concern over the rights of consumers, the quality of consumer goods, and the honesty of advertising. The ideology came into full focus in the 1960s after President John F. Kennedy introduced the Consumer Bill of Rights, which stated that the consuming public has a right to be safe, to be informed, to choose, and to be heard. The primary concern of this force is to fulfill and protect the rights of consumers articulated by President Kennedy more than three decades ago.
13. social reform
is a movement intended to bring about social and humanitarian reforms. Social reform is a reform that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society rather than rapid or fundamental changes. Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in utopian, socialist or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. Reactionary movements, which can arise against any of these, attempt to put things back the way they were before whatever successes of the new movement(s), or prevent any such successes in the first place.
14. interchangeable parts
are... Identical components that can substitute one for another, particularly important in manufacturing. Mass production, which transformed the organization of work, came about by the development of the machine-tool industry by a series of 19th-century innovators. With precision equipment, large numbers of identical parts could be produced at low cost and with a small workforce.
Interchangeable parts are components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type. This streamlines the manufacturing process, since all pieces are guaranteed to fit with all others, and it similarly creates the opportunity for replacement parts.
Prior to the 18th century, devices such as guns were made one at a time by gunsmiths, and each gun was unique. If one single component of a weapon needed a replacement, the entire weapon either had to be sent back to an expert gunsmith to make custom repairs or discarded and replaced by another weapon. Around 1778, Honoré Blanc began producing some of the first firearms with interchangeable parts. Blanc demonstrated in front of a committee of scientists that his muskets could be assembled from a pile of parts selected at random. Other inventors to implement the principle included Henry Maudslay, John Hall, and Simeon North.
In the U.S., Eli Whitney saw the potential benefit of developing "interchangeable parts" for the firearms of the United States military, and thus, around 1798, he built ten guns, all containing the same exact parts and mechanisms, and disassembled them before the United States Congress. He placed the parts in a large mixed pile and, with help, reassembled all of the weapons right in front of Congress, much like Blanc had done some years before.
The US Congress was immensely impressed and ordered a standard for all United States equipment. With interchangeable parts, the problems that had plagued the era of unique weapons and equipment passed, and if one mechanism in a weapon failed, a new piece could be ordered and the weapon would not have to be discarded.
The principle of interchangeable parts quickly made mass production in all sorts of industries relatively easy. It was based on the use of templates, applied by semi-skilled labor using machine tools instead of the traditional hand tools. With the introduction of the assembly line at the beginning of the 20th century, interchangeable parts became ubiquitous elements of manufacturing.

Admin

Bhy 01.01.2013. 09:39

How can you preserve the fertility of soil?10 POINTS? Array

Bhy

Admin 01.01.2013. 09:39

1. Plant Trees: We all know that roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. As trees grow tall, they also keep rooting deeper into the soil. As the roots of trees spread deep into the layers of soil, they hold it tightly, thus preventing soil erosion. Soil under a vegetative cover is saved from erosion due to wind as this cover acts as a wind barrier.
2. Build Terraces: Terracing is a very good method of soil conservation. A terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area. Owing to its unique structure, it prevents rapid surface runoff of water. Terracing gives the landmass a stepped appearance, thus slowing the washing down of soil. Dry stonewalling is a method used to create terraces in which stone structures are made without using mortar for binding.
3. No-till Farming: The process of preparing soil for plowing is known as tilling. No-till farming is a way of growing crops without disturbing it through tillage. The process of tilling is beneficial in mixing fertilizers in the soil, making rows and preparing the surface for sowing. But the tilling activity can lead to compaction of soil, loss of organic matter in the soil and the death of soil organisms. No-till farming is a way to prevent the soil from this harm.
4. Contour Plowing: This practice of farming on slopes takes into account the slope gradient and the elevation of soil along the slope. It is the method of plowing across the contour lines of a slope. This method helps in slowing the water runoff and prevents soil from being washed away along the slope. Contour plowing also helps in percolation of water in the soil.
5. Crop Rotation: Some pathogens tend to build up in soil if the same crops are cultivated again and again. Continuous cultivation of the same crop also leads to imbalance in the fertility demands of the soil. To save the soil from these adverse effects, crop rotation is practiced. It is a method of growing a series of dissimilar crops in an area. Crop rotation also helps in the improvement of soil structure and fertility.
6. Maintain Soil pH: The contamination of soil by addition of acidic or basic pollutants and due to acid rains has an adverse effect on the soil pH. Soil pH is an indicator of the level of nutrients in soil. The uptake of nutrients by plants also depends on the pH of soil. Maintaining the correct value of soil pH, is thus essential for soil conservation.
7. Water the Soil: We water plants, we water the crops, but do we water the soil? We seldom do. Watering soil is a good measure of soil conservation. Watering the soil along with plants growing in it is a way to prevent soil erosion caused by wind.
8. Salinity Management: The salinity of soil increases due to excessive accumulation of salts in the soil. This has a negative effect on the metabolism of crops. The salinity of soil is detrimental to the vegetative life in it. The death of vegetation leads to soil erosion. Hence, salinity management is an indirect way of conserving soil.
9. Promote Helpful Soil Organisms: Nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria are important constituents of the nitrogen cycle. They live in soil. Bacteria and fungi help keep the soil healthy. Organisms like earthworms help decompose organic material in the soil. They aid soil aeration and help it maintain porosity. Rodents too, help soil the same way. This increases the absorbing capacity of soil. Earthworms, through aeration of soil, enhance the availability of macronutrients. These helpful organisms boost soil fertility and help in soil conservation.
10. Grow Indigenous Crops: Planting native crops is beneficial for soil conservation. If non-native plants are grown, fields should be bordered by indigenous crops to prevent soil erosion, thus achieving soil conservation.

Admin

Nancy Lopez 03.06.2013. 08:52

I NEED HELP I NEED TO TOPIC THAT HAS TO DO WITH MEDICAL OFFOCE MANAGEMENT FOR MY REPORT? I HAVE A REPORT DO SOON I DONT WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT BUT MY REPORT HAS TO DO WITH SOMETHING THAT IS MEDICAL OFFICE MANAGEMENT

Nancy Lopez

Admin 03.06.2013. 08:52

The key areas of medical office management include:
?Health Information Management ?Revenue Cycle Management ?Accounts Receivable Management ?Human Resource Management ?Process Improvement ?Patient Satisfaction

--Health Information Management: HIM is the process of maintaining, storing and retrieving patient health information in accordance with applicable Federal, State, and accrediting agencies' requirements. There are 10 responsibilities within the framework of health information management: 1.Medical coding 2.Medical transcription 3.Medical necessity 4.Medical staff support 5.Assembly of medical records 6.Maintenance of medical records 7.Filing 8.Privacy and security 9.Release of information 10.Maintaining confidentiality

--Revenue Cycle Management: Managing the revenue cycle efficiently is no easy task and requires your constant attention. Each phase of the Revenue Cycle - from the moment a patient is scheduled for an appointment until the time payment is received from the insurance company - is equally important to maximizing insurance reimbursements. It is vital for the financial stability of the hospital or physician office to have a process in place for each phase of the revenue cycle. 1.Insurance verification 2.Upfront collections 3.Claims follow-up 4.Denials resolution 5.Payment posting

--Accounts Receivable Management: The overall goal of the AR management is to achieve the shortest collection period as possible. Accounts receivables, also known as patient accounts, refers to revenues generated but not yet collected. To ensure cash flow is sufficient for effective management, the medical office has the responsibility to maximize its revenue potential. Successful accounts receivable management requires a full understanding of how each area or department relates to and influences the revenue cycle and the AR collection period. The eight areas include: 1.Legal Concepts 2.Contract Negotiation 3.Compliance 4.Patient Rights 5.Patient Access 6.Charge Capture 7.Health Information Management 8.Patient Financial Services

--Human Resource Management: Managers have a challenging position within the Medical Office. Managers are required to distribute the work load, motivate and supervise staff, and coordinate the smooth operations of the office. In addition to all of the other responsibilities, they also must perform several HR Management tasks. In larger organizations, the medical office manager must collaborate and make joint decisions with the HR Manager. Smaller organizations don't usually have a separate HR department. They have the authority to make most decisions without interference. Here are five HR tasks for medical office managers: 1.Employee recruitment 2.Employee benefits 3.Employee development 4.Policy and procedure implementation 5.Measuring and evaluating employee performance

--Process Improvement: Every function in the medical office should be part of a continuous process improvement plan. The complex nature of the medical office can present major challenges for creating and maintaining a healthy organization. The ultimate goal of a medical practice is to provide quality health care to its patients but as we all know that requires successful integration of the multiple components necessary to deliver this care. If one or more component fails to meet certain standards of effectiveness, the medical office can be at risk for falling below its standards, goals and expectations. There are four steps that any practice can use to implement the continuous improvement needed to keep up with the progressive nature of the health care industry: 1.Define each process 2.Measure each process 3.Analyze each process 4.Improve each process

--Patient Satisfaction: The most valuable people to the medical office is not the physicians, the nurses, or the staff -it is our patients. Without patients, the medical office serves no purpose. Sometimes, the staff of the medical office are so busy performing their job they forget that the patient is the job. Customers of a medical office are not typical customers. They are patients that expect the highest quality of care and some may be in the midst of a medical crisis which requires delicate handling. In order to create and maintain positive levels of patient satisfaction, the medical office should focus on several areas: 1.Patient safety 2.Customer service 3.Communication techniques 4.Scheduling 5.Patient rights 6.Collection practices 7.Patient confidentiality

The Certified Medical Manager examination covers:
?Billing and Collections ?Coding Analysis ?Communication ?Compliance ?Conflict Management ?Employment and Payroll ?Financial Planning ?Health Care Law ?Human Resources ?Managed Care ?Managing and Leading ?Practice Accounting ?Patient Education & Practice Marketing ?Practice Structure ?Risk Management ?Systems Analysis and Design ?Third Party Reimbursement ?Time Management

Admin

Gerard 14.03.2013. 23:35

Fellow Christians:Do you ever struggle with worry/fear sometimes? I will admit, I worry and fear a lot more than I really should. I worry about school,family and my relationship with Jesus Christ. I worry that I dont do enough, and I worry about doing the wrong things. I worry about what people think of me, and it has literally nearly put me in an early grave. I constantly pray that God will take all of this worry and fear away from me, and I am starting to see Him stepping in in a mighty way!
How about you? Do you struggle with fear/worry sometimes?
Thank you for answering and may God bless you

Gerard

Admin 14.03.2013. 23:35

I used to worry a lot, but thanks to God, I?m much better now. I personally used to dwell on a particular situation, and get really worrisome if I didn?t see anything good happening. I would tell myself it was ok to worry, that it was just a part of my human nature. And it is, as humans we do worry, but we really shouldn?t. God invites us to pray to him, just like Philippians 4:6, 7 reads: ? Do not be anxious over anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication along with thanksgiving let YOUR petitions be made known to God; and the peace of God that excels all thought will guard YOUR hearts and YOUR mental powers by means of Christ Jesus.?

When we pray to God, we have to have faith that he?ll help us, in his own ways and at his own time. I?ve always been the type to lead, and want things to get done quickly, but that attitude wasn?t very humble at all. It was like I was praying to God ?Help me. Only you can ease this worry? yet by my actions and my continuous anxiety over the issue it was like I was saying ? I need your help, but..I?m going to take this into my hands because I?m not sure you?ll help me.? 1 Peter 5:6,7 describes perfectly the attitude I should?ve had ?Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt YOU in due time; while YOU throw all YOUR anxiety upon him, because he cares for YOU.? God will take care of things in due time, just have to leave everything in his hands, and not worry about it after, because we should have that faith that he?ll actually take care of it.

God has given us his Word, so study it to find out for yourself if you?re doing enough. Keep praying for him to open your eyes to see what you can improve on, and he?ll let you see what you need to do. Humble yourself enough that you can recognize if you do need to make improvements, and make them. God doesn?t expect us to know everything (we never will know everything about him), but he expects us to keep on learning about him, and obey everything we do learn of him. It?s a continuous process, but he?s there for us every step of the way.

Keep praying, keep learning, but don?t worry too much. Hope you feel better!

Admin

Sandra 22.04.2012. 02:15

question concerning operations management? Question 1
The Kaizen philosophy applies to ________.
Employee development
Safety stock
Waste
Supply Chain Management
MRP III
Question 2
An operations strategy reflecting the lean philosophy of production should recognize that lean:
is most suited for non-repetitive manufacturing
cannot be implemented sequentially
requires a wholesale commitment from the outset
may provide a competitive advantage
all of the above
Question 3
Which of the following would you not expect to see in a lean environment?
a flexible system
minimum inventory
little waste
reduced setup times
a significant number of daily schedule changes

Question 4
A system of lights used at each workstation to signal problems or slowdowns is:
command and control center
automation
andon
pull system
kanban
Question 5
Because the lean philosophy is so consequential competitively, firms are often advised to adopt it ________.
with products in the introduction phase of their life-cycle
with their vendors first
completely all at once
sequentially over time
globally before locally
Question 6
With regard to suppliers, lean systems typically require:
delivery of large lots at regular intervals
buyer inspection of goods and materials
multiple sources from which to purchase
long-term relationships and commitments
the lowest price possible
Question 7
Which of the following is not characteristic of preventive maintenance in lean systems?
maintaining equipment in good operating condition
replacing parts when they are worn but before they fail
workers maintaining their own equipment
eliminating supplies of spare parts to reduce capital investment
perceiving breakdowns as an opportunity for improvement
Question 8
In the lean philosophy, the ideal lot size is:
the economic order quantity
the economic run size
one unit
the capacity of the standard container
N= (DT(1+X))/C

Question 9
The ultimate objective in a lean system is:
low to moderate levels of inventory
high quality, zero defects
minimal waste (less than 6%)
balanced and rapid flow
all of the above

Question 10
Building up an inventory of standard parts or modules instead of immediately producing the finished end items is the essence of:
delayed differentiation
kanban
autonomation
andon
matrix management
Question 11
With regard to suppliers, lean systems typically involve:
delivery of large lots on short notice
the highest quality at the lowest price
long-term relationships
multiple suppliers to assure continuous availability
dedicated staging areas for material
Question 12
The ultimate goal of lean operations is to have:
no in-process inventories
cross-trained workers capable of handling every process
a smooth, rapid flow of materials through the system
no setup times
all of the above
Question 13
A successful conversion to a lean system requires that the conversion:
be done as quickly as possible
begin at the start of the process and work forward
convert vendors to lean as one of the last steps
reduce setup times as one of the last steps
all of the above
Question 14
A basic requirement for operating with the low inventories present in lean systems is:
Inventory space must be increased.
Inventory investment must be increased.
Major problems must be identified.
Major problems must have been solved.
Inventories must be reduced rapidly.
Question 15
Process design supporting lean doesn't include ______.
Production flexibility
Duplicate facilities
Setup time reduction
Minimal inventory storage
Small lot sizes
Question 16
A conveyance __________ signals parts movement.
Request
Routing
Bar code
Kanban
Kazian
Question 17
The term that refers to the automatic detection of defects is:
Answer kaizen
kanban
autonomation
automation
100% inspection
Question 19
When lean is used in the context of services, which of the following is most often the focus?
the labor content of the service
the time needed to perform a service
the inventory tied up in the service
the equipment used in the service
suppliers of inputs to the service

Sandra

Admin 22.04.2012. 02:15

Q1: The Kaizen philosophy applies to Employee development: developing their creative mind.

Q2: An operations strategy reflecting the lean philosophy of production should recognize that lean:
requires a wholesale commitment from the outset (I'm not sure about it)

Q3: a significant number of daily schedule changes: evidence of not efficient plans

Q4: andon: Andon light system with 3 lights for quick abnormality response

Q5: with their vendors first (I think)

Q6: long-term relationships and commitments: For trust making

Q7: eliminating supplies of spare parts to reduce capital investment: False, they are needed

Q8: the capacity of the standard container: it's near to Kanban definition

Q9: high quality, zero defects (it cover all of them)

Q10: delayed differentiation: unlike Kanban

Q11: long-term relationships (repetitive question)

Q12: all of the above

Admin

Cheese 26.04.2011. 04:32

Automation Benefits 10 POINTS? Can someone list 3-5 benefits that would minimize costs and maximize benefits of automation!! PLEASE ANSWER!! I promise to give 10 Points to best answer!!

Cheese

Admin 26.04.2011. 04:32

The main advantages of automation are:
Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work.[2]
Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
Economy improvement. Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a state or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century.

The Benefits of Process Automation
In addition to those already mentioned, there are many benefits to process automation. Some of these
include:
Improved Efficiency. Many business processes span systems, departments, or even external business
partners. Manual effort, poor hand-offs between departments or partners, and the general inability to monitor
overall progress results is a significant waste for most processes. Process automation eliminates or
significantly reduces these problems with a resultant reduction in labor hours, time span, and increased
throughput.
Increased Productivity. By automating processes that are currently being implemented manually, individuals
can work more efficiently and can take on new or additional workloads. Process automation allows us to rise
to the challenge of being asked to do more with less.
Shorter Cycle Times. Time is money. By automating processes, they are kept moving, hand-offs are
facilitated, consistency is assured, and cycle times to complete the process are shortened. Getting the product
or service to the end user or to market quicker can result in significant financial benefits.
Consistent Process Implementation. Consistency comes from having a documented process that is
understood and followed every time. Process automation makes the process easy to understand and enforces
adherence to the process steps. This eliminates missed steps often found in manual processes, resulting in
consistent, reliable measures that assist in making decisions and implementing process improvements.
Corporate Governance and Compliance. Process compliance, regulatory compliance, and corporate
governance are ever increasing in importance. Organizations must demonstrate consistency and show that
effective controls and business monitors are in place to ensure processes are sound and will provide financial
accountability, visibility, and reduce risk and fraud. Process automation can help your company with
compliance issues surrounding regulations like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Combined Code for Corporate
Governance, Bilanz Reform, and more. Noncompliance or lack of adequate controls can cost your company
big-time. Process automation ensures your processes are followed as they are laid out.
Ability to Quickly Implement Change. Another benefit of automated process is that the reliable, consistent
information provided can enable you to recognize the need for change or improvement quickly and then be
able to make that change and put it into effect in a faster and more controlled manner than you could with a
manual process. The ability to change quickly provides an important business advantage.
Improved Customer Service and Satisfaction. Customers are much more satisfied when they receive timely,
top quality products and services. Process automation enables you to build consistency into your products
and services, facilitate continuous improvement, and get the product or service to your customer faster.
Happy customers are repeat customers.
Reduced Costs and Improved Profits. All of the above benefits result in direct bottom-line results of reduced
costs, ability to take on more work, and improved profitability. All things any company is seeking.

Admin

marnie 17.01.2007. 04:07

does anyone know help for baby eczema? my ababy has eczema and i was wondering what products would help her flare ups..what products will help and what shoudl i use for bathing and lotions??

marnie

Admin 17.01.2007. 04:07

There are 5 main aspects of preventing and treating eczema.

AVOID DRY SKIN ? moisturize, moisturize, moisturize! This is the single most important step in minimizing your child's eczema. Do not underestimate this! This needs to be part of your daily routine with your child.

Luke warm baths ? hot water can dry the skin. Let your child play and soak in the bath. Do not let him soak in soapy water. It used to be felt that frequent bathing made eczema worse. Now we know that lukewarm baths allow water to soak into the skin.
Towel off gently by patting the skin. Do not rub dry.
Do not use plain soap ? soap dries the skin, even liquid baby soap.
Use a moisturizing soap with no perfume ? unscented Dove works very well. Cetaphil is a cleanser that is also soap-free and good for eczema.
Daily moisturizing lotion ? this is very important. 2 to 4 times a day apply a moisturizing lotion or cream to the whole body, especially the affected areas. Some good brands include Aquaphor, Eucerin, or Keri lotion. One good time to apply this is right after the bath ? it locks in the moisture.

AVOID SKIN IRRITANTS ? this is the second most important aspect of prevention.

Cotton clothing is best. Avoid wool and synthetic materials; they can be more abrasive and irritating to the skin.
Use cotton sheets and soft, cotton blankets.
Wash new clothes before wearing them ? this will get out any chemicals from the manufacturing process.
Do not use any perfumed or scented lotions.
Do not use bubble bath.
Laundry detergents ? use a mild, dye-free detergent such as Dreft, Ivory Snow or All Clear. Liquid detergents rinse out better.
Double rinse the wash to get out all the detergent.
Shower or bath after your child plays in the grass or engages in sports that make him sweaty.
Maintain humidity of 25-40% in your home. Buy a humidity gauge. During the dry winter months, use a humidifier in your home. During the humid summer months, the air conditioning can keep the humidity stable.
Suntan lotion ? use one that doesn't irritate your child's skin. PABA free is better.

AVOID ALLERGIC TRIGGERS

Food allergies ? if your child has any food allergies, then they will play a major role in causing eczema. The problem is, you may not know if your child has any food allergies, and if he does, which foods is he allergic to? Thankfully, there are six common foods that make up nearly 90% of possible allergic foods. These are milk, egg, soy, peanuts, fish and wheat. Eliminate all 6 foods for 2 to 3 weeks. If you see dramatic improvement, then re-introduce each food one at a time to determine which is causing the allergy.
Environmental allergies ? these include dust, mold, pets, and seasonal outdoor allergies such as pollens. These environmental allergies are more likely to cause nasal allergies and asthma rather than eczema. However, they can contribute to the eczema. Identifying and preventing these allergies is a very complicated process. Click on nasal allergies for a detailed discussion on preventing environmental allergies.

CONTROL THE ITCHING ? this is a major problem for children with eczema. They are in a continuous cycle of itching and scratching. The dry, irritated skin itches, so your child scratches. The scratching further irritates the skin, which causes the rash to flare up. This itches even more and your child scratches even more. If you can keep the skin moisturized, decrease the rash, and prevent itching and scratching, then you can avoid this endless cycle.

Keep fingernails cut short and very clean ? when your child scratches, the bacteria that live under his nails and on his skin get pushed deeper into the rash. This can lead to a skin infection. Shorter nails also will lessen the trauma to the skin.
Wear long sleeves and pants, weather permitting ? this keeps his skin covered so your child is unable to scratch as much.
Medications to reduce itching ? oral antihistamines are a very effective way to control itching. There are two types:

Over-the-counter ? Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is the standard for itching. Its only drawback is that is causes drowsiness in many people. At nighttime, this can be an advantage since it will help your child sleep through the itching. But during the day, it can interfere will his daily functioning.
Non-sedating prescriptions ? Zyrtec, Claritin, and Allegra and the three most commonly used. Zyrtec is currently approved for down to age 2 years. The other two are not. These have two benefits: they are long-acting and last 12 hours, and for most people they do not cause drowsiness. Thus they are very convenient for use during the day.
You can alternate between these two. Use Benadryl at night, and a prescription during the day.
When to use thes medications ? do not just automatically give these to your child every day. When the eczema is under control, the rash is mild, and your child has little or no itching, then give your child a break from the medication. But do not be afraid to use it during flare-ups and for periods of moderate to severe itching. You need to break the itching and scratching cycle before the rash worsens. You can safely use these medications daily for several weeks.

TOPICAL STEROID CORTISONE CREAM ? although this is a medication to help control itching as in the section above, it deserves its own special section. These creams have long been the gold standard to minimize the rash and itching from eczema. They vary in strength from the extremely mild over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream, to mild, medium, strong, and very strong prescription creams. Here is how to use them:

Preventative treatment ? if your child's eczema is usually well controlled, with very little itching and rash, then you do not need to use a cortisone cream for prevention. However, if the eczema is moderate to severe and your child continuously has rash and itching despite all possible measures to minimize it, then you can use this cream on a daily basis to try to improve the condition. Use the mildest form that seems to work for your child.
Treatment during flare-ups ? virtually all children with eczema will experience flare-ups from time to time. They can vary from mild rash, to moderate rash, to a severe flare-up all over the body. What is considered mild versus severe will vary between children, depending on how mild or severe your child's baseline eczema is. Your child may have a few mild areas and other areas that are moderate to severe all at once. Here's how to treat flare-ups:

Mild rash ? this consists of a few areas of raised, red rash slightly worse than your child's baseline rash. Treat this with the over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream (do not bother with the 0.5% - you might as well not use anything if you use this). It will say extra-strength, but it is really very mild. Use the cream twice a day until the rash subsides. Ask your doctor for a mild prescription cortisone cream if the OTC one doesn't work.
Moderate rash ? again, what is considered moderate is based upon your child's baseline rash. These areas are often more red and inflamed, may have some oozing from the rash, and may bleed slightly from scratching. Itching will be worse than usual. Treat these areas with a mild prescription cortisone cream. You can also ask your doctor for a medium strength cream if the mild one doesn't work.
Severe rash ? these areas will be very red and irritated, will ooze, and bleed. These areas will be larger and more widespread than usual. Itching and burning will be troublesome. Treat this with a medium strength prescription cortisone cream. Your doctor may prescribe a strong cream to be used very sparingly for severe areas that don't improve with a medium strength cream.
How long to use the cream ? only use the prescription cream until the rash subsides. You don't have to keep using the same strength cream until the rash is totally gone. Once you see the rash is somewhat better, then step down to a weaker cream. Use that one until the rash is back to baseline. It is safe to use the mild prescription creams for a few weeks.
Helpful tips ? after a bath, apply the cream to the slightly damp skin. Apply the steroid cream before applying the moisturizer.
Side effects of steroid creams There are two types of side effects:
Local side effects in the skin ? include thinning of the skin, stretch marks, and infections.

Internal side effects ? a very small percentage of the steroid is absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream. If enough is absorbed, it can affect certain hormone levels which in very rare cases can cause reduced growth rate. Be aware that this only happens with overuse of the strong steroid creams. There are two factors that determine side effects:

The stronger the cream and the longer it is used, the more chance of side effects. Over the counter cream has virtually zero chance of side effects, and so do the mildest prescription creams. The moderate strength creams have a slight chance of side effects. The strong creams have some chance of side effects, especially the longer they are used. The very strongest creams should not be used in children.
Different parts of the body are more susceptible to side effects in the skin. These areas include the face, armpits and genital areas. It is generally safe to use the mildest creams on these areas for a few weeks, and use the mild to moderate creams for several days, but it is better not to use the strong creams on these areas at all.

Admin

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