Health Care and Health Insurance Costs Can Be Controlled Through Lifestyle Choices

Comments (17)


Health Care and Health Insurance Costs Can Be Controlled Through Lifestyle Choices

By: Michael Ertel

As you probably know all to well, the cost of healthcare and health insurance premiums continue to increase at levels substantially above the general inflation rate. The reasons given for these extraordinary cost increases are numerous and include: technological advancements in the medical field, increased demand for medical services and prescription drugs, the aging of the population, cost shifting caused by the uninsured and governmental reimbursement rates, state and federal mandates, and costs associated with medical related lawsuits.

As individual consumers, we have very little control over some of the factors contributing to the cost of healthcare. However, all of us have control over lifestyle related health insurance claims. A simple formula of eating a balanced diet, getting the appropriate amount of daily exercise, participating in annual physicals and other recommended routine care, limiting alcohol consumption, and eliminating the use of tobacco products will no doubt reduce our personal healthcare costs. In addition to reducing medical costs, the other benefits of following such a formula include more energy, self confidence, less stress, and increased productivity. If you are not doing so already, I encourage you to consider practical ways to promote a healthy lifestyle for you and your family. For example, one of the individual health insurance companies my organization works with has an option that will offset 25% of the annual cost of a health club membership. Simple things such as taking a walk, bike ride, or going swimming promote both a healthy body and mind. If you have a sweet tooth, consider limiting yourself to eating desert once a week. You will enjoy it more and your body will thank you.

Health insurance premiums will continue to increase as long as the cost of healthcare continues to go up. The best way to reduce the overall cost of healthcare is to decrease our need for healthcare. Healthy lifestyle choices and prudent use of the healthcare system are the best and easiest ways to get a handle on our healthcare expenditures. Perhaps the greatest benefit of a healthy lifestyle is our ability to enjoy our precious time here on earth to the fullest.

About The Author

Michael Ertel is the founder of http://www.MedicalInsuranceNow.com which is a website that assists individuals and small business owners by providing side by side comparisons of health insurance alternatives.

MErtel@medicalinsurancenow.com

Comments

Jeremy 08.11.2009. 21:58

What are The Issues of Health Care Funding? The truth is that the perfect healthcare system does not exist -- each country reflects its own social priorities. There is no right answer, especially as healthcare budgets continue to rise across the developed world. In the United States, universal coverage is sacrificed in favor of individual choice and control. Voters are worried that a government run system may deny them their choice of doctor or drug, or even see granny up before a "death panel." In the U.K., while universal access is a core principle, survival rates from serious diseases lag behind those of other developed countries and choice for patients is extraordinarily limited.

Health care can never be affordable, high quality and universal. Politicians consistently claim that it can tick all of the boxes, whereas the reality is that high quality systems are either unaffordable, or not available to everyone. Yet politicians from every country continue to pretend that the unobtainable goal of affordable, universal, high-quality care is just around the corner.

Debates about public or private models of funding are actually something of a sideshow, for two reasons. First there is a false dichotomy between privately and publicly funded systems. Almost all healthcare costs are shared, whether through redistributive taxation or pooled risk in an insurance fund.

The second reason is that populations are ageing, so that more retired people rely on relatively fewer workers to fund their care. All across the world, countries are struggling to meet the costs of health care, with spending predicted to continue rising in the decades ahead. It is simply untrue to suggest that this problem can be tackled through tinkering with funding models: health care needs to be paid for somehow.

The worst scenario for the future is that the poor and sick are hit hardest. As health care budgets increase, more and more attention will be paid to the chronic diseases that result from unhealthy lifestyles. No longer do healthcare systems deal with polio, smallpox and other infectious diseases. The big killers today are obesity, diabetes and cancer -- problems related to alcohol, smoking, poor nutrition and lack of exercise. Whether privately or publicly run, health systems will begin to put enormous pressure on people with unhealthy lives to shape up or risk losing coverage.

President Obama?s challenge, therefore, is even greater than reforming the health system. Politicians everywhere must begin to find ways to inspire or compel voters to get healthier if health care systems across the developed world are not to collapse into bankruptcy. Personal example is a good place to start.

Jeremy

Admin 08.11.2009. 21:58

In the very long run it weakens the genetic pool .

Ref: (survival of the fittest)

In the short term it destroys the dollar because the US Gov , in their infinite wisdom prints money to pay for programs they can.t afford.

Admin

Jasmine 05.09.2007. 15:11

Universal Healthcare or Government Control? ?It requires that everybody be covered. It requires that everybody get preventive care. If you are going to be in the system, you can?t choose not to go to the doctor for 20 years. You have to go in and be checked and make sure that you are OK.? ?John Edwards

Now I'd like to focus on this statement:

If you are going to be in the system, you can?t choose.....

Who is going to choose what is best for me? Does the government really know what is best? Do I want them to control my medical care? What do you think?

Jasmine

Admin 05.09.2007. 15:11

In addition - if you read through the 1000's of pages of the "Hillary Care" system proposed inthe early 90's - It makes paying $$ to a physician a criminal act - I want to go where I want to go, when I want to go to the physician/hosptial of my choice.

Socialized or "Single Payer" programs are nothing more than a government run HMO - the only way to control costs is to manage access - this is accompished by delaying medically necessary treatments.

Read on:

In 2006 Britain's Department of Health reported that at any given time, nearly 900,000 Britons are waiting for admission to National Health Service hospitals, and shortages force the cancellation of more than 50,000 operations each year.

In Sweden, the wait for heart surgery can be as long as 25 weeks, and the average wait for hip replacement surgery is more than a year.

Canada is not immune to the issues either - Brian Day, a Vancouver orthopedic surgeon, was elected president of the Canadian Medical Association last month on a PLATFORM of bringing some types of private medicine and business practices to Canada's socialized medicine. so even Canada is looking toward private insurance as a solution to their issues.

There is a real problem with the uninsured in America, and as a Health Insurance Broker, I talk to my clients about how they as employers, myself as a broker and the health insurance carriers have a responsibility to get these people insured through innovative group and individual products.

We have a large pool of healthy Americans who are not insured, we need them to step up and become part of the solution. In addition, we Americans need to take responsibility for our own health. A significant portion of medical claims are directly related to the American lifestyle (we as Americans have the resources to become fat and lazy). I feel that through employer sponsored wellness, consumerism and disease management programs we can continue down the road of a "healthy America". Result: a reduction of the large claims that have our healthcare spending spiraling out of control.

Admin

CAT^ 26.08.2008. 19:26

Do you Really Know How Universal Health Care Will Affect You and Your Family? http://www.freemarketcure.com/brainsurgery.php

CAT^

Admin 26.08.2008. 19:26

No, and I don't care to either.

The only way to "know" is to have experienced it in one of the countries that has it, like Canada.

I do hear plenty of stories though, about it taking 40 days or more to get in to see a doctor, and about procedures being denied due to someone's age or health status (basically saying that it's not worth the cost of something if someone stands a chance of dying in the following few years).

Not what I (or our founding fathers) had in mind.

If someone really wants socialized healthcare they are more than welcome to move to one of those countries!

-------------------------------
CBH is incorrect in his assertions that McCain wants to do away with employer sponsored health care. Actually that's probably one of the most ludicrous statements I've heard today. Just another uninformed Obama supporter trying to smear McCain with misinformation since there's not much genuine information to use. You can go to my link to read it for yourself.

-----------------------

To sarge927 - I was about to give you a thumbs up for your answer, but since you slammed me, you get the thumbs down. Assuming you possess intelligence (which I do from your intelligent answer) what I meant was: I have never lived in a country with socialized medicine, nor do I plan to. That's not burying my head in the sand even remotely. It simply means I DON'T LIKE SOCIALISM. I would assume the same from your answer, so maybe think next time before you type.

-----------------------------------------

katydid - Just in case you were addressing me in your answer: I never said I loved the current system in the US. It is flawed and expensive. However, I have a policy with BCBS for my entire family of 4, not through my employer, and I pay about $700/quarter. Unless you have prior health issues or are a heavy smoker, you should be able to do better than $700/month for just you and your husband. The coverage with Blue Cross is decent, and while I choose a high deductible ($2,500) to keep premiums low, once I paid the deductible, it would cover the majority of an expense like your husband had.

The biggest issues we face in the US are around cost. Access is not an issue for most, nor is the quality of care. The biggest issue with cost is with the pharmaceutical industry, which create fictitious diseases to meet a group of symptoms which are either: a) natural b) caused by poor lifestyle choices or c)side affects of other pharmaceuticals. We are WAY over-prescribed and over-diagnosed in this country. The pharmaceutical companies generate BILLIONS every year, and it's coming at our expense. It's become way too convenient for the majority of Americans to simply go to their doctor with an issue, do no research on their own, blindly accept what the doctor says (the majority of whom receive massive perks from the industry), and then just take a pill. And then take another pill for the side affects the first generates, and so on. These prescriptions, of course, are often provided with insurance for VERY LOW amounts of money. Thus the more is prescribed, the more our costs go up to cover this. The more people who follow this regime instead of taking control of their own health, the worse it gets.

Admin

Lance 17.08.2009. 21:09

Does the CEO of Whole Foods have a better Health Reform plan than Congress? The Whole Foods Alternative to ObamaCare
Eight things we can do to improve health care without adding to the deficit.
8/11/09
By JOHN MACKEY
"The problem with socialism is that eventually you run out of other people's money."
?Margaret Thatcher

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204251404574342170072865070.html

Highlights:
?Remove the legal obstacles that slow the creation of high-deductible health insurance plans and health savings accounts (HSAs). Our plan's costs are much lower than typical health insurance, while providing a very high degree of worker satisfaction.
?Equalize the tax laws so that employer-provided health insurance and individually owned health insurance have the same tax benefits.
?Repeal all state laws which prevent insurance companies from competing across state lines.
?Repeal government mandates regarding what insurance companies must cover. What is insured and what is not insured should be determined by individual customer preferences and not through special-interest lobbying.
?Enact tort reform to end the ruinous lawsuits that force doctors to pay insurance costs of hundreds of thousands of dollars per year.
?Make costs transparent so that consumers understand what health-care treatments cost.
?Enact Medicare reforms that create greater patient empowerment, choice and responsibility.
?Finally, revise tax forms to make it easier for individuals to make a voluntary, tax-deductible donation to help the millions of people who have no insurance.

Health care is a service that we all need, but just like food and shelter it is best provided through voluntary and mutually beneficial market exchanges. A careful reading of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution will not reveal any intrinsic right to health care, food or shelter.

At Whole Foods we allow our team members to vote on what benefits they most want the company to fund. Our Canadian and British employees express their benefit preferences very clearly?they want supplemental health-care dollars that they can control and spend themselves without permission from their governments. Why would they want such additional health-care benefit dollars if they already have an "intrinsic right to health care"?
Health-care reform is very important. Whatever reforms are enacted it is essential that they be financially responsible, and that we have the freedom to choose doctors and the health-care services that best suit our own unique set of lifestyle choices.

Lance

Admin 17.08.2009. 21:09

what does he know? all he did was take a handful of supermarkets and turned it into a multimillion dollar business, obama knows whats best for the country, he spent countless days and evenings hanging out on peoples front lawns with his megaphone and acorn buddies, without fail till people changed there minds in the name of change till he had to surrender his lawyers license before he got disbarred.
obamacare is the way to go whats a few trillion of others peoples moneys as long as we know its comming right back at us in higher taxes.

Admin

Jeremy 08.11.2009. 22:14

What do you think the real issues of health care funding are? The truth is that the perfect healthcare system does not exist -- each country reflects its own social priorities. There is no right answer, especially as healthcare budgets continue to rise across the developed world. In the United States, universal coverage is sacrificed in favor of individual choice and control. Voters are worried that a government run system may deny them their choice of doctor or drug, or even see granny up before a "death panel." In the U.K., while universal access is a core principle, survival rates from serious diseases lag behind those of other developed countries and choice for patients is extraordinarily limited.

Health care can never be affordable, high quality and universal. Politicians consistently claim that it can tick all of the boxes, whereas the reality is that high quality systems are either unaffordable, or not available to everyone. Yet politicians from every country continue to pretend that the unobtainable goal of affordable, universal, high-quality care is just around the corner.

Debates about public or private models of funding are actually something of a sideshow, for two reasons. First there is a false dichotomy between privately and publicly funded systems. Almost all healthcare costs are shared, whether through redistributive taxation or pooled risk in an insurance fund.

The second reason is that populations are ageing, so that more retired people rely on relatively fewer workers to fund their care. All across the world, countries are struggling to meet the costs of health care, with spending predicted to continue rising in the decades ahead. It is simply untrue to suggest that this problem can be tackled through tinkering with funding models: health care needs to be paid for somehow.

The worst scenario for the future is that the poor and sick are hit hardest. As health care budgets increase, more and more attention will be paid to the chronic diseases that result from unhealthy lifestyles. No longer do healthcare systems deal with polio, smallpox and other infectious diseases. The big killers today are obesity, diabetes and cancer -- problems related to alcohol, smoking, poor nutrition and lack of exercise. Whether privately or publicly run, health systems will begin to put enormous pressure on people with unhealthy lives to shape up or risk losing coverage.

President Obama?s challenge, therefore, is even greater than reforming the health system. Politicians everywhere must begin to find ways to inspire or compel voters to get healthier if health care systems across the developed world are not to collapse into bankruptcy. Personal example is a good place to start.

Jeremy

Admin 08.11.2009. 22:14

Yes but please do not take away my McDonald's burger?*

Admin

No Homo *EVERY1 GAY BUT ME* 24.09.2009. 20:05

What do you think of this US Healthcare alternative? An alternative to the socialized medicine the President wants

Pillar #1: Access to Coverage for All Americans
Makes the purchase of health care financially feasible for all
? Extends the income tax deduction (above the line) on health care premiums to those who purchase coverage in the non-group / individual market. And, there is an advanceable, refundable tax credit (on a sliding scale) for low-income individuals to purchase coverage in the non-group / individual market.
Covers pre-existing conditions
? Grants states incentives to establish high-risk / reinsurance pools. Federal block grants for qualified pools are expanded.
Protects employer-sponsored insurance
? Individuals can be automatically enrolled in an employer-sponsored plan. Small businesses are given tax incentives for adoption of auto-enrollment.
Shines sunlight on health plans
? Establishes health plan and provider portals in each state, and these portals act to supply greater information rather than acting as a purchasing mechanism.
Pillar #2: Coverage is Truly Owned by the Patient
Grants greater choice and portability
? Gives patients the power to own and control their own health care coverage by allowing for a defined contribution in employer-sponsored plans. This also gives employers more flexibility in the benefits offered.
Expands the individual market
? Creates pooling mechanisms such as association health plans and individual membership accounts. Individuals are also allowed to shop for health insurance across state lines.
Reforms the safety net
? Medicaid and SCHIP beneficiaries are given the option of a voucher to purchase private insurance. And states must cover 90% of those below 200% of the federal poverty level before they can expand eligibility levels under Medicaid and SCHIP.
Pillar #3: Improve the Health Care Delivery Structure
Institutes doctor-led quality measures
? Nothing suggested by the Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research can be finalized unless done in consultation with and approved by medical specialty societies. It also establishes performance-based quality measures endorsed by the Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement (PCPI) and physician specialty organizations.
Reimburses physicians to ensure continuity of care
? Rebases the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) and establishes two separate conversion factors (baskets) for primary care and all other services.
Promotes healthier lifestyles
? Allows for employers to offer discounts for healthy habits through wellness and prevention programs.
Pillar #4: Rein in Out-of-Control Costs
.
Reforms the medical liability system
? Establishes administrative health care tribunals, also known as health courts, in each state, and adds affirmative defense through provider established best practice measures. It also encourages the speedy resolution of claims and caps non-economic damages.
Pays for the plan
? The cost of the plan is completely offset through decreasing defensive medicine, savings from health care efficiencies (reduce DSH
Hell no I'm suprised how many commies reside on Y!A.

No Homo *EVERY1 GAY BUT ME*

Bailey 19.04.2008. 20:29

Identify any areas that are vague or ambiguous.? "By making obesity a disease, government does all Americans?large or not?a disservice."
Obesity should not be labeled a disease, Sonia Arrison contends in the following viewpoint. She asserts that while obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States, treating it as an illness instead of the result of poor dietary choices would unfairly harm healthy Americans. By calling obesity a disease, the condition could be treated using Medicare or Medicaid funds, which come from the taxpayer dollars of all Americans, fat or thin. Arrison concludes that individuals must be aware of the consequence of their overeating and realize that society will not pay for their higher health care costs. Arrison is the director of technology studies at the Pacific Research Institute, a public policy think tank that promotes free-market solutions.
[In March 2005] California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger announced his intentions to support a bill outlawing the sale of junk food in schools. Science shows the governor is right to worry about an obesity crisis, but banning candy in schools is like putting a Band-Aid on a third-degree burn.
According to the American Obesity Association, "approximately 127 million adults in the U.S. are overweight, 60 million obese, and 9 million severely obese." That's a huge number of people, and basic medicine predicts that their weight problems will turn into more serious conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, a number of cancers, gall bladder-disease, osteoarthritis and obstructive sleep apnea.
The Economics of Obesity
In short, people are eating themselves to death. While consequences are dire for each obese individual, what many don't realize is that their choices also harm the part of America that remains healthy. The most obvious impact is the economic strain. Numbers provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that obesity costs Americans a ton.
For instance, in 1998, medical expenses due to obesity accounted for 9.1 percent of total U.S. medical expenditures and may have been as high as $78.5 billion. That's a lot of cash, but the kicker is that approximately half of these costs were paid by Medicaid and Medicare?in other words, by taxpayers. There's something disturbing about this situation, which could be described as socialized obesity. By sharing the health care costs with obese people, health-conscious Americans lose tax dollars and see health insurance premiums shoot up.
[In 2004] Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson designated obesity as a disease. But much of obesity is caused by poor nutrition and behavioral problems. By making obesity a disease, government does all Americans?large or not?a disservice. Many diseases hit individuals through no fault of their own, but obesity is in a different category.
Individual Responsibility
To ward off obesity, proper diet and exercise are necessary. Yet the socialization of the costs of the problem only makes it more likely that individuals will carry on with their destructive behavior. It's not rocket science: Whatever is subsidized will grow. And by incentivizing individuals to ignore the consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle, we all suffer a productivity hit when otherwise smart people die early due to obesity-related diseases. Dr. Bruce Ames, the eminent biochemist and inventor of the Ames test for carcinogens, has made longevity and diet one of his key areas of study. His conclusions show that in order to live longer, individuals must maintain a good diet, including the proper amount of vitamins and antioxidants. This advice might seem a no-brainer, but it is easy to ignore in a society where junk food marketing is everywhere and the costs of individual overeating are distributed amongst everyone.
The best way to help mitigate the onslaught of obesity is to make sure that individuals are aware that the costs of their behavior will be borne by them. That is, if they choose to eat potato chips and sit in front of the television night after night, instead of eating fruits and vegetables and exercising, then they should not expect society to help them pay the higher costs of health insurance.
Perhaps this is a cultural issue as much as a political one, which brings the discussion back to Governor Schwarzenegger's quest to ban junk food in schools. The idea of educating the population about the risks associated with empty calories, such as those found in soda, is a good one. And in a publicly-run system where government is supposed to be responsible for the well being of children, perhaps it makes sense. But there is a larger issue.
While schools should educate children about nutrition and a healthy diet, ultimately, kids will have to make their own decisions. So the lesson is also one of individual responsibility. That's how a free and healthy society operates.

Bailey

Admin 19.04.2008. 20:29

Try taking out the little bits of slang, like "the kicker" and "no-brainer". They stand out too much in a piece that is so factual. Also, you seem to have two arguments here: that obesity should not be treated as a disease in order to avoid financially punishing thinner people, and that children should be taught to make better nutritional choices rather than having those choices made for them. Whatever my opinion on either of those issues, you should either make the tie between them clearer or focus on one or the other.

Admin

Scott O. 04.02.2013. 18:04

Controversial Issues about Nursing? I am looking for an issue to write about that is not something that everyone uses....ex...abortions, euthanesia, stuff like that. I would like to have an exciting and unique issue to debate, something like the RN to Patient Ratio, or Pain relief medications. Something would be great to debate about and would last to about 10 pages.....Thanks in advance....Im at a total loss

Sources or Reference would help a lot!

Thank You!!

Scott O.

Admin 04.02.2013. 18:04

Is this about nursing or controversial issues in medicine in general?

How about insurance surcharges for obesity? The ACA sets limits on incentives for healthy employees. Is this fair? Especially since obesity is too often a lifestyle choice? And since obesity is one of the largest segments of medical insurance payouts/health care costs?

One of the big ones in the news, and that's become even more applicable with hospitals buying out so many smaller practices and groups, is a woman's right to choice in her reproductive health. Should a hospital have the right to refuse to perform an abortion? Refuse to provide birth control? Should an employer have the right to refuse to provide medical insurance covering these things?

Should there be mandated birth control/sterilization for women or men who regularly parent children they are unable to care for?

What about insurance having more liberal coverage on preventative care? Personal trainers, dietitians, gym memberships, etc? If an obese person is willing to make a change, but it will cost $2500/year for a personal trainer, is that better than a $10000 knee surgery? Or $50000 bypass surgery?

What about higher taxes on junk foods and meat/dairy? These things are directly related to massive health issues...

Torte reform and how the lack of it creates a culture of CYA medicine (defensive medicine).


Nursing specific:

Mandated vaccinations. Does/should an employer have the right to tell an employee they must get a flu shot? What if I object because I don't eat eggs (for ethical, medical, or religious reasons)? What if I object just because I don't want someone requiring an invasive procedure on my body?

Has the ADN degree become obsolete?

Should NPs go through doctoral level training, as suggested by the AACN?

Should there be a national RN licensing program? What involvement should states still have, if you believe so? Would it be useless since you would still probably need to certify by state to learn and follow state laws?

Admin

Jim Bay 09.03.2012. 15:39

Has the democrat plan to create a phony republican war on women backfired? Exposing the left as misogynistic? Hypocrites trying to create a wedge between republican women wanting to maintain religious freedom from the government Obamacare and republican women who view women's rights through a single issue prism of sexual freedom? Who are these republican women who believe they are not free unless someone else buys their birth control for them? Women depending on the government or their religious employer to break with their conscience don't really exist in a republican party where women are independent, self assured, and self reliant. Republican women don't rely on others and refuse to be victims! They get ahead the old fashioned way, they "earn it".

Do you agree this attempt by the democrats to advert attention away from Obama colossal screw up of attacking religious freedom and Catholics in particular has inadvertently exposed the misogyny of the left that often paints women as sex tools, rather than independent and equal partners?

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/03/08/critics-of-rush-limbaugh-ignore-bill-maher-matt-taibbi-misogyny.html

Jim Bay

Admin 09.03.2012. 15:39

I don't really see it the way you do at all. I don't think that Obama is trying to attack religious freedom as much as I see that as backlash against Obamacare.

This argument, and all arguments, are an indication that the Government cannot provide a one-size-fits-all solution to as diverse a population as exists in the US, and yes, I do think that this whole "Women's rights vs Religious Freedom" is a major diversion from the real problem - which is that government just does not belong in this fight, and that the whole thing can be settled by the free market.

I think that women have every right to seek health insurance coverage for birth control, just as much as Georgetown has the right to offer whatever insurance policy they want. The problem is that there are not enough low cost choices for the students to make if they find that the Georgetown policy does not cover what they want.

If health insurance were allowed to be competitive across state lines, and the extent of government involvement were to be a tax credit (even a refundable one) for individual purchase, this would not be an issue. No one would care. Fluke could have birth control covered, Georgetown could offer a policy that doesn't cover it, others could have high-deductible catastrophic policies, others could have policies that offer discounts for a healthy lifestyle. No one would be "controlled", no one would be forced into taking a policy they don't like, that doesn't suit their needs, or that they disagree with philosophically.

You are not denied this choice with your car insurance, with what kind of car or television you buy - no one tells you you have to have a flat screen TV, or buy your groceries from Wegman's or Target; no one tells you whether you should buy an Apple computer, a PC, or to build your own. You have the choice of operating systems for that computer, You are not "denied" anything in the free market, but you are denied your choice when it comes to healthcare.

When the government inserts itself into an issue like this, no one will be happy, and for the most part, everyone will be angry. Both Republicans and Democrats will come out on the wrong side of this issue for a huge number of people - and no one will win.

I really don't understand why the free-market solution is suddenly so "off the table". Everyone seems to be sucked into the argument about "What should Government mandate"? , not "Why do we look to Government to mandate anything at all?"

Admin

Write a comment

* = required field

:

:

:

:


* Yes No