Working as a "Knowledge Worker" in the Information Age

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Working as a "Knowledge Worker" in the Information Age

By: Peter Garas

The old adages: "It's not what you know, but who you know" and "High Tech, High Touch" could be the mottos of knowledge workers in the 21st Century.

Never before in the history of the world has both networking and interpersonal communication been potentially easier, broader, more wide-spread and paradoxically, more difficult.

The access to people and information in the information age is without parallel in history. The same technology which has enabled this to happen, has also reduced the time between communications from weeks to seconds.

There is simply no officially available time within which to conduct the communications on which networking and interpersonal contacts depend. The time that people used to spend thinking and crafting their communications and interacting is now at a premium. While the volume of communications has expanded exponentially so too has, what I can only refer to as 'noise'. Noise, being communications whose content is usually less than useful and in many nstances banal and not useful at all.

Most of what appears in the journals, in public forums and in discussions describes new forms of work place organisation that assume solid support from the institution in which they form.

Coherent groups which used to be called "self interest" groups and are now re-badged and called "communities of interest" or "expert groups" or 'learning communities" or 'quality circles" or "virtual teams" or "communities of practice".

Groups which do receive official encouragement and institutional support are usually not only unsuccessful, but in many instances, actively resented by the participants who are often "selected" by their senior management colleagues to attend.

The resentment appears to be based on the fact that the individual has not self selected the people with whom he/she would like to communicate, this choice is made for him/her by management. Generally there is:

  • no assessment about whether the person is the 'right person' for the discussion and/or topic under discussion;
  • no attempt to undertake any ice breaker exercises when the groups first meet to try and ensure that there is a sufficient and necessary breakdown of the interpersonal barriers to communication; and
  • no attempt to realise or rationalise the differing political agendas that each individual has been sent to present to the meeting by his/her administrative supervisor.

The means by which these groups are set up and managed, presents a barrier to its success. This is generally not acknowledged by the management that keeps on setting up these groups, usually because they have read a little in the literature and skimmed the information, found a good idea and then without in depth knowledge about what they are doing, launched their next management 'fad'.

It is interesting to observe, by way of contrast, that those groups that self create and self moderate and do NOT include the management layer at all within their constructs, seem to do very well and achieve a lot. There is however a downside which is a period during which the original purpose of the gathering has been achieved and the group struggles to find a new 'raison d'étre' to continue because they value the interactions, the mutual upports and the 'tick tacking' discussions which add value to each person's understanding by leveraging the understanding and/or perceptions of the others in the group. Most often than not, this fails and the group engages in a process that is like 'swirling'. It disbands, members keep their contacts alive and when a new reason for meeting emerges then some of the original group reforms involving others in the group as their interests and/or expertise comes to bear.

The work which actually takes place behind the scenes to maintain contact and to keep supporting each other is intensive, hidden and generally not reported in any way within existing reporting structures or performance reporting tools. It can take up at least 1/3 of a working day. How it is factored into information lodged within tool suites that attempt to record work to funded projects is one of the most well kept secrets used by most staff.

The reports that these groups make to management, with their usually innovative and practical suggestions are probably the best form of intelligence the organisation could harvest. There is unfortunately serious resistance from the senior management layer to receiving and considering the information, because it is perceived as having come from what are described as 'feral' groups within the organisation. Cynics in the work place usually ascribe this reaction to senior managers being miffed that they cannot claim kudos from the work because they did not even know it was happening.There are companies around the world who reward and indeed fund 'feral' behaviour. One company for example has created the 'thief of the year' award. It is given the person who can find something in the public domain which he/she then leverages to substantially improve the corporate bottom line. The same company also funds its staff to go off line and develop a productive idea at full pay for a period of six months. If they succeed then they are rewarded and the company gets the benefit of their work. If they fail then they are sacked or at minimum placed into work situations where their independence is considerably constrained for an extended period. This usually puts the intrapreneur on his her mettle and forces a risk management approach to the innovation cycle before choosing to try out that idea and increases the pressure to succeed once the choice has been made.

The reality for most workers is that the many manifestations of organisational change - downsizing, outsourcing, merging, splitting, acquiring, partnering, and the constant redrawing of internal boundaries, responsibilities and organisational charts leads to situations in which it is increasingly difficult for workers to turn to established role based structures in their organisations when they need labour or information. It is in these conditions that workers leverage their own personal networks rather than relying on unstable and weakening organisation charts. Workers are empowered only if they are successful at creating and maintaining their own personal social networks. The work of networking really is 'invisible work' which is not accounted for in workflow diagrams or performance evaluations.

In the past, employees worked for relatively long periods in 'communities of practice' (Wenger, 1988) within which they built up expertise in the details of their jobs. "Research on communities of practice has documented a number of important characteristics of this style of work: workers operated within clearly defined organizational and social roles, they were highly familiar with one another and shared considerable social, cultural and organizational knowledge that served as a backdrop for work and interaction. Workers were generally, (but not always) co-located, making it possible to have frequent interpersonal communications that contributed to the creation of shared knowledge, and facilitated the smooth execution of work tasks." (Kraut et al., 1993; Whittaker et al., 1994; Nardi and Engeström, 1999) - Quoted in "It's Not What You Know, It's Who You Know: Work in the Information Age." Nardi, Bonnie A.; Whittaker, Steve; Schwarz, Heinrich 2001

Recent management literature has documented that these working conditions are rapidly becoming obsolete. One of the consequences of these organisational and technical changes is that in many companies and organisations operations are conducted in an increasingly 'distributed' manner - i.e. where the workers, contractors, consultants, and important contacts can be distributed across the organisation and indeed the world. In this sort of environment, workers experience stresses such as:

  • remembering who is in the network;
  • knowing what people in the network are currently doing;
  • where they are located;
  • choices among the many forms of media means to communicate effectively with people;
  • being mindful to 'keep in touch' with contacts who may prove useful in the near or distant future.

In contrast to the personal network view, the bulk of the management literature on work place organisation reflects a team based approach. This literature generically seems to assume that workers go about their business in teams with clearly defined and stable roles, functions and responsibilities. In much the same way, there is a further assumption that organisations have predictable, stable structures.

In listening to people in at least one large Commonwealth organisation both of these assumptions are invalid. Other researchers report similar viewpoints in many other bureaucracies, for example: Fisher and Fisher, 1998; Lloyd and Boyle 1998, Jarvenapaa and Leidner, 1999, Mark, Grudin and Poltrock, 1999.)

In this brief overview what is being suggested is that management groups re-appraise their directions and consider whether their official structures are delivering the outcomes which were predicted and/or imagined and then explore whether the vitality of unleashing and supporting underground, feral or more 'neural' networks offer a better direction.


D. Ancona and D. Caldwell , 1988.) "Beyond Task and Maintenance," Group and Organizational Studies, Volume 13, number 4, pp. 468-494.)

L. Bishop, 1999.) "Visible and Invisible Work: The Emerging Post-Industrial Employment Relation," In: B. Nardi and Y. Engeström (guest editors). Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Volume 8, numbers 1-2 (special issue), pp. 115-126.)

Y. Engeströrn and V. Escalante, 1996.) "Mundane Tool or Object of Affection?: The Rise and Fall of the Postal Buddy," In: B. Nardi (editor). Context and Consciousness: Activity Theory and Human - Computer Interaction. Cambridge , Mass. : MIT Press, pp. 325 -373.)

A. Epstein, 1961.) "The Network and Urban Social Organization," Rhodes - Livingstone Journal, Volume 29, pp. 29-62.)

K. Fisher and M. Fisher, 1998.) "The Distributed Mind: Achieving High Performance though the Collective Intelligence of Knowledge Work Teams." New York : American Management Association.

N. Friedkin, 1982.) "Information Flow through Strong and Weak Ties in Intra-organizational Social Networks," Social Networks, Volume 3, pp. 273-285.) S.

Jarvenpaa and D. Leidner, 1998.) "Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Volume 3, number 4 (June).

J. Lave and E. Wenger, 1991.) "Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation." Cambridge , Eng : Cambridge University Press.

P. Lloyd and P. Boyle (editors), 1998.) "Web-Weaving: Intranets, Extranets, Strategic Alliances." Oxford , Eng. : Butterworth-Heineman.

G. Mark, J. Grudin, and S. Poltrock, 1999.) "Virtually Collocated Teams in the Workplace," Proceedings, ECSCW '99 (6th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 12- 16 September 1999 , Copenhagen ), pp. 159-178, and at

B. Nardi, A. Kuchinsky, S. Whittaker, R. Leichner, and H. Schwarz, 1996.) "Video-as-Data: Technical and Social Aspects of a Collaborative Multimedia Application," Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Volume 4, number 1, PP. 73-100.

B. Nardi, and Y. Engeström, 1999.) "A Web on the Wind: The Structure of Invisible Work," In: B. Nardi and Y. Engeström (guest editors). Computer Supported Cooperative work, volume 8, numbers 1-2 (special issue), at

E. Wenger, 1998.) "Communities of Practice". Cambridge , Eng. : Cambridge University Press.

S. Whittaker and H. Schwarz, 1999.) "Meetings of the Board: The Impact of Scheduling Medium on Long Term Group Coordination in Software Development," Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Volume 8,pp. 175-205.)

L. Wildeman, 1998.) "Alliances and Networks: The Next Generation," International Journal of Technology Management, Volume 15, numbers 1/2, pp. 96-108.)

A. Wolfe, 1978.) "The Rise of Network Thinking in Anthropology," Social Networks, Volume 1, pp. 53-64.)

About The Author

Peter Garas, B.A, B.Soc Stud, MSW has been involved in the management of social workers, IT, Knowledge Management, Information Management and Records Management in Australia since 1975.)


jaws 11.03.2010. 17:12

Any professionals out there that work with young children? just want to know what yous think of the key worker system and how it works, the good and bad things about using it etc? anything would be a great help thanks!


Admin 11.03.2010. 17:12

The key worker system should be in place in order that each age group have adequate support and representation within the day care. This person builds critical relationships with both families and children and coordinates information pertaining to their charges sharing it as needed with parents and other staff. The emotional and physical health of the child, and the foundations for their overall development are supported thanks to this consistency and continuity of care.

The key worker communicates regularly with parents from the outset ensuring that the child settles into the day care with minimum upset. He/she learns as much as possible about the relationship between parent and child so as to apply that knowledge at day care. Additionally, they are responsible for maintaining progress reports and development plans for each individual child. This way any changes in the behaviour or interests of the child will be noted.

A major aspect of the role of key worker is to bridge the worlds of day care and home. The bond a key worker forms with a child, using knowledge gleaned from parents, helps provide the all important continuity of relationship. Other carers should also form relationships with the child to avoid separation anxiety should the key worker be absent.


Josh M 21.02.2012. 05:35

What is the average educational level of agriculture workers in Japan? I'm working on a research paper and although I've found lots of information on the agricultural labor force in Japan, I can't seem to find what the average level of education for these workers are.

Could anyone help me with this? Also, if you happen to find a good informative site, please include it as it will probably have lots more information that will be beneficial to me.

Josh M

Admin 21.02.2012. 05:35

The average level of education ?
Comparatively young people study agriculture in college.
Many middle age and old man have a high school degree.
They were taught the agricultural skills from parent or farm family.
But their agricultural skills and knowledge are a world top class.
Many people come to Japan to study agriculture.
Some people live in the local communities and transfer agricultural skills from Japan to the people of the developing countries.


lefemepetite 11.05.2010. 20:37

What paperwork and what is the process to relocate to Europe? We are looking to relocate to Europe and we have several countries we like such as France (Paris) but we hear job market is difficult there. Others we have in mind are England, Italy or the like. What are some of the best cities to move to and work in Europe and what is the process and paperwork necessary to do so.
P.S. We are a couple of young professionals in the technology and interior design fields.
Thank you in advance


Admin 11.05.2010. 20:37

Moving here isn't particularly easy especially with the current economic conditions; the recovery is lagging behind the US a bit. It isn't clear exactly where you're coming from, but the process is the same if you're not from the EU. You would first need a visa to live & work here legally. EU citizens have the right to live and work freely within the EU, others cannot automatically live and work here. The site for visas here in Italy is: . The site has links to the application, the additional information you need to supply in order to get the visa and where to apply. It also includes education and residence (without work) visas which are somewhat easier to get than work visas. You can often find similar information for other countries on their consulate websites. For France, you can check: - you'll want to look at the long term stay visa and working in france sections.

EU regulations require that a company has to be able to demonstrate that there is not a viable EU candidate for the job before they can get a work permit for a foreign worker. As a result, jobs for foreigners including Canadian or US citizens and others are pretty much restricted to people with special education, knowledge, or experience ... and you would have to be able to speak the local language. When I got my visa for Italy, the process took about 8 months even though it was a transfer of a job I already had in the US (and was at a time when the economy was expanding).

With the economy now, jobs are scarce - a lot of companies have a hiring freeze in place. The unemployment rate in Spain is around 20% for example and almost 50% in the 16 to 24 year old age group. It's not quite so bad here in Italy, but still behind the US in terms of recovery. Many of the recent university graduates I know here are either unemployed or working jobs like cashier at groceries.

It's useful to check the expat sites for information about living and working in the places you might be interested in. You can find sites by searching for "expat" and the name of the country.

You need to look carefully into the economics of the move. The cost of living is somewhat higher here than in Colorado where my US home is. In addition, if you're a US citizen and move to Italy, you'll need to file tax returns in both the US and Italy every year as a US expat and that can be quite expensive. For me, it is worth living here for the lifestyle and opportunities to travel throughout Europe rather than the monetary aspects.


ms. dee 15.06.2010. 00:22

I am looking into moving to Europe & obtaining citizenship. How would I go about that? I speak, read and write English & Spanish fluenty, as well as some Italian. I have been looking into teaching English in Europe. I currently work in the education/social services field. I am also taking a course on travel and tourism, in which I expect to finish by November 2010. Also, attending college would be ideal. Any advice you can offer would be a great help! Thank you.

ms. dee

Admin 15.06.2010. 00:22

You don't have to be a citizen to live and work here. Gaining citizenship is a long process in most places unless you can claim citizenship by ancestory (parents, grandparents usually - the relationship rules can be complex). You would first need a visa to live & work here legally. EU citizens have the right to live and work freely within the EU, others cannot automatically live and work here. The site for visas here in Italy is: . The site has links to the application, the additional information you need to supply in order to get the visa and where to apply. It also includes education visas which are somewhat easier to get than work visas. An educational visa is easier to get, but that does not allow you to work here legally other than some very limited part time work.

The rules are similar for other countries - look for information on their consulate websites. For example - for Spain. There's information on visas at:

European regulations require that a company has to be able to demonstrate that there is not a viable European candidate for the job before they can get a work permit for a foreign worker. As a result, jobs for foreigners including Canadian or US citizens are pretty much restricted to people with special education, knowledge, or experience ... and you would have to be able to speak the local language. When I got my visa for Italy, the process took about 8 months even though it was a transfer of a job I already had in the US. I am guessing from the wording or the question and your ID that you are not a US citizen, but if you're from anywhere other than the EEA, the same rules apply. There are some private language schools here that hire young people, but they tend to be short-term contracts which don't pay a lot. In the town where I live, the people hired are invariably from the UK/Ireland since they don't require visas or all the paperwork to hire.

With the economy now, jobs are scarce - a lot of companies have a hiring freeze in place. The unemployment rate in Spain is around 20% for example and almost 50% in the 16 to 24 year old age group. It's not quite so bad here in Italy, but still behind some other places in terms of recovery. Many of the recent university graduates I know here are either unemployed or working jobs like cashier at groceries. Consequently, companies are not looking for an influx of foreign workers right now. It can't hurt to keep an eye on the situation though if and when the economy improves.

It's useful to check the expat sites for information about living and working in the places you might be interested in. You can find sites by searching for "expat" and the name of the country. For Italy -


disabilitydebate 07.08.2006. 13:00

How can we ensure disabled people have full opportunities to acquire skills to improve their employability? In 2003 40 per cent of disabled people had no qualifications at all.

In 1986 20 per cent of workers were required to have a Level 4 (higher) qualification. By 2020 it is projected that demand will be 40 per cent.

If current trends continue, by 2020 almost half of all employment would be in higher skilled occupations.

Employers have warned that without at least a basic grasp of ICT skills, people will find it increasingly difficult to find work.

Of those in receipt of Disability Living Allowance (DLA), 37 per cent have never used a computer, while only 37 per cent have used the internet.

ICT use is lower among people with impairments and long term health conditions than other citizens even after accounting for the older age profile.

Increasingly business and public services are employing ICT at the front line of their services to drive down costs, meaning potentially poorer access and outcomes for those unable to use ICT.


Admin 07.08.2006. 13:00

Firstly I need you to explain to me what ICT is. In North America unemployment and underemployment for disabled persons has stayed fairly static at about 70 per cent. One in 7 persons in Canada is disabled and as the population ages this will increase.

However as we move from an military industrial type work force to the age of information and eventually the knowledge worker, persons with disabilities who are familiar with adaptive devices will probably become more employable than less.

I know in Ontario for persons on provincial ODSP ( Ontario Disability Support Programs) there are employment support programs which will help students , post secondary as well as those in a change of life situation. They'll even help a student pay for books , transportation and clothes for interviewing under certain circumstances.

Most disabled students now attend regular classes at public schools across Canada. There are not as many " institutionalized" schools as there once were.

Students have educational aides up to high school and generally have to meet the same minimum standards of education to graduate from grade 12.

Not all disabled students will want or need post graduate educations but times are improving. Disabled students certainly have far more choices than when I graduated in 77 from university.

What is most critical is ' attitude' of employers, rehab workers, educators, society at large to take disabled issues seriously . Make places truly accessible, not just ramps, have ttys in city halls, follow and enforce building codes and adapt to the recently passed Ontario Disabilities Act. Don't think because as a non disabled person you might not be able to do a job , so a disabled person certainly won't be able to, it's YOUR perception that isn't always based in fact, but emotion and sometimes unneccessary ignorance.

Have accessible affordable transportation available in not just large ubran areas but in smaller more rural, more northern areas as well , that will help people with disabilities become more employable.

It's not just up to the disabled person to adapt to society , it's now society's turn to start adapting to our needs we are consumers just as much as those who are temporarily abled bodied.


??????????????? 15.12.2008. 06:36

How to write a career research paper? I need help in writing my career research paper, grade 12. I'm writing it about psychiatry. Any information about psychiatry or examples of a career research paper would be a great help. thanks.


Admin 15.12.2008. 06:36

What do psychiatrists do?

Psychiatrists are doctors who look after patients with mental health problems, such as depression and schizophrenia. Unlike other acute specialties in which drugs and operations play prominent roles in the management of patients, management of mental health patients involves a combination of measures, such as drugs, psychological counselling, improving home environments and social networks, and occasionally physical treatment such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, their management depends on a wide range of professionals, including clinical psychologists, social workers, (community) psychiatric nurses, and occupational therapists. The psychiatrist needs to work together with these professionals as a team.

Although psychiatrists play a leading role in treatments involving drug and physical treatment, their skills and roles overlap to some extent with other professionals. Therefore, trainee psychiatrists receive some training on basic knowledge in psychology and basic skills in various forms of psychotherapy. However, the psychiatrist often relies on the skills of these other professionals in deciding the best form of drug or physical treatment to give to each patient.

There are few mental health disorders for which there is a definitive diagnostic laboratory test. Most psychiatric diagnoses are made on the basis of a full history and mental state examination. This is why good communication skills are essential to be a good psychiatrist and why psychiatrists sometimes disagree on the exact diagnosis of patients.

Another distinctive aspect of psychiatry is that patients sometimes have no insight into their own illness. These patients sometimes need to be treated against their will without their consent. To safeguard the rights of the patients, mental health professionals need to follow precise procedures in the Mental Health Act before they are allowed to admit and treat patients against their will.

What is the day to day work like?

The workload and duties vary widely between jobs. The senior house officers (SHOs) are usually responsible for the day to day management of inpatients, review them regularly, and present updates at the ward round. They also see both new and follow up patients in outpatient clinics. Quite a lot of time can be spent in meetings, such as community team meetings, where team members representing different professions can discuss the problems and needs of patients living in the community. SHOs are also involved in administering ECT and assessing patients presenting with deliberate self harm. There is protected time for consultant supervision, psychotherapy training, and attending teaching sessions including at the local MRCPsych course. On call duties are usually less hectic than acute specialties and many rotas allow you to be on call from home. Some hospitals have teams of nurses trained to deal with deliberate self harm assessments and patients who present in crisis. They help to reduce the workload for the trainees and make the job more pleasant.

The career structure

The recent option of a four month general practice attachment as a house officer might be more relevant to psychiatry than the traditional six months in medicine and surgery. A career in psychiatry begins with a place on a junior SHO rotation that usually involves posts in general adult and old age psychiatry. Part I of the MRCPsych examination can be attempted after one year of training, and progression to a senior SHO scheme occurs usually after passing the Part I or gaining sufficient experience in the specialty. The senior scheme allows the SHO to rotate through a number of subspecialty posts before taking the Part II exam. To become a member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists the SHO must pass both parts of the examination and complete six months training in child and adolescent or learning disability psychiatry.

Specialist registrar training is shorter than in any other specialties and currently lasts for only three years for training in a single subspecialty, and four or five years for those training in two subspecialties.

Future job prospects

Career progression in psychiatry is more rapid than in other specialties. Due to the large number of vacant posts, a fully trained psychiatrist can be in quite a powerful bargaining position when choosing a job. Service provision is poor in some areas, which allows interested consultants to develop their own services. There are opportunities for part time work and there are many staff grade equivalent posts for those who cannot or do not wish to progress to consultant grade. You can also develop other interests such as research, teaching, audit, or management.


PETE 12.01.2009. 02:16

Can someone tell me some information about a medieval blacksmith? This is for my school project, i got picked as a blacksmith and i need to know what they eat, how they are important, and stuff about a medieval blacksmith.


Admin 12.01.2009. 02:16

Medieval Blacksmiths has as much influence on shaping the age they lived in as they did on the metals they worked on. Medieval Europe was the time of the first great advancements in science and technology and new practices in farming, fabrication, construction and fighting were constantly being introduced. None of these would have been possible without the blacksmith.
The medieval blacksmith first came into being as a part time metal worker. In small settlements scattered all over the continent, a person with the right physique was chosen, or volunteered, to do his best in heating and shaping iron to meet the needs of the community her lived in. This was part time work to be done only when the primary duties were completed. However, as the part time iron worker?s skills kept improving, the demand for these goods also grew and so producing and selling metal work became a profitable profession.
As the settlements grew in size and more blacksmiths set up shop, the first guilds came into being. There guilds where more than just trade unions. They set the basics standards that the blacksmiths would work to and allowed the sharing of knowledge among the members. Although most tradesmen guilds of the time were secretive, the blacksmiths guilds were more so than most because theirs was a trade that not everyone could undertake and which also required specialized knowledge which was kept closely guarded.?
There is plenty of more information on the new general information Blacksmithing Medieval website that can be found by visiting: . There is also a special going on now that allows members to gain access to free ebooks and other free materials just for signing up as a member of the blacksmith website for free at: Users should check back often to the Blacksmith general page as more information will be added as the website expands and grows.
Read my source there are other links to site devoted to medieval blacksmith's you should get a ton on information.


Aaron 09.10.2011. 04:31

What is a good argumentative topic to do my english 1020 paper over? I'm on my third and fourth paper of the semester and I need a topic to argue. I wll be doing an annotative bibliography and then an essay. Any ideas are welcome, I want something out of the norm, not your typical arguments!


Admin 09.10.2011. 04:31

List of Argument Essay Topics

Should we do more to deal with the problem of domestic violence, or is the problem exaggerated?

We are becoming overwhelmingly dependent on computers. Is this dependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits?

Is there too much of commercialism in the Internet?

Technology makes communication easier in today's world. Many people choose to work at home in front of a computer screen. What danger does the society face depending on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact as the main means of communication? Are we the prisoners of the progress?

Should the animals be used for scientific research? Is it humanly?

Should the cigarettes smoking be banned as heroin consumption?

Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from using cellular phones?

Should restrictions be placed on the use of mobile phones in public areas like restaurants and theaters?

Shall we integrate from Marketing to E-Marketing?

Should the death penalty be mandatory for people that kill other people?

Should the "Right to Die" be Considered a Right?

What are two sides of the death penalty? Is it a cruel murderer or a just punishment? Can it be a deterrent to crime?

Should animal experimentation be permitted?

Euthanasia as a way of relieving ill people's pain and save them from the tortures of their illness. Do we have the right to take people's life, if after all life is the greatest charisma?

Forests are the lungs of the earth. Should the rain forests destruction be prohibited? How is it possible to protect forests?

Should there still be colleges and schools just for men/boys and some just for women/girls?

Should sex education be increased in schools in an attempt to curb problems such as teenage pregnancy?

Considering in detail the opposing arguments presented by Plato and Nafisi, when is censorship necessary given the nature of knowledge and reality?

The 1920's was a leisurely period in history and people began spending more time playing and observing sports. Who were the major contributors to this "Golden age" of sports and what influence, if any, did they have on future athletes and the sports they played?

Human beings do not need to eat meat in order to maintain good health because they can get all their food needs from meatless products and meatless substances. A vegetarian diet is as healthy as a diet containing meat. Argue for or against the opinion above.
What do you think about vegetarians? Are they people who care for animals and want to protect them or people lacking the adequate ration?

What are some of the best ways to welcome and then assimilate immigrants into American life?

What are the pros and cons of each of these?

Domestic workers: How these women are treated or mistreated by their employers. The problems they face with inequality in the workplace, most of these women come from different countries and do not speak the language or know their own rights.

Advertising: Information or Manipulation?

To what extent has the traditional male role changed in the last 20 years?

Education is an indivisible part of the prosperity of the nation. The more educated and cultured people there are in the country the more flourishing and thrifty the country is. Comment on this issue, argument your decision

Should society assume more responsibility for pregnant teenagers and children they bear?
The mass media, including TV, radio, newspapers have a great influence on people and especially on the younger generation. It plays an important role in shaping the opinions and positions of the younger generation. Argue for or against this statement.


cattys_cats 10.02.2007. 22:29

What courses do I have to take to become a Psychiatrist? I can't find anything on becoming a psychiatrist!!! I almost settled for becoming a psychologist, but i wanna go the extra mile and reach for my goal.
So, what courses do I have to take in college, or what degrees should I try to earn?


Admin 10.02.2007. 22:29

How do I become a psychiatrist?
All psychiatrists are qualified doctors, so first you must first gain a place at medical school. Academically, you will need good passes in 3 A-levels, at least one of which must be a science subject (chemistry is compulsory at some medical schools). There is a lot of competition for places at medical school. Successful candidates need:

? good academic qualifications
? enthusiasm with good interpersonal skills
? a wide range of outside interests
? some interest in a caring profession.

You will find general information and advice on becoming a doctor, as well as a list of medical schools, on the following website of the British Medical Association. There are many other careers in mental heath that do not involve having a medical degree. These include psychology, counselling and social work. You can find more information about careers in these fields by contacting the British Psychological Society, the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy, Mind and the General Social Care Council.

What is the career pathway of a psychiatrist?
Medical degree (usually 5 years)
This provides students with some exposure to the different specialties within medicine.

Foundation Year 1 and Foundation Year 2 (2 years)
After medical school you will spend 2 years working in a hospital as ?foundation programme trainee.? This will extend the knowledge and skills you have gained as a medical student. The foundation programme will help you understand the important qualities that you will need to develop to be a successful doctor. The second year of foundation programme will extend your knowledge and give you opportunities to experience working within different specialties.

Specialty training (usually 6 years)
Once you have completed the foundation programme you will be able to apply for specialty training in psychiatry. This will last for around 6 years and will include assessments through out the six years.

On successful completion of speciality training, you will be able to apply for a consultant post.

What makes psychiatry special?
As a doctor specialising in this area, you really could make a difference to someone?s life, and help them regain their self-respect and happiness. Psychiatry is an excellent career choice for anyone interested in how the mind works, and someone who enjoys working as part of a team. There is real variety in psychiatry. Every day can be different and every person you see will be unique. Psychiatrists work across a person?s lifespan, from childhood to old age. There are a number of different areas in which you can specialise, including child and adolescent psychiatry (working with young people up to school-leaving age), forensic psychiatry (working with people with mental illness who commit crimes), psychotherapy (using ?talking treatments?, rather than prescribing medicines, to help people) and the psychiatry of learning disability (what used to be called ?mental handicap?).

General adult psychiatry
This involves looking after working age adults with a wide variety of mental health needs. These problems include depression, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Treatment involves using medication as well as trying to influence psychological and social factors.

Old age psychiatry
This involves working with adults over the age of 65. They may have any of the mental health problems encountered in general adult psychiatry. In addition, a major part of the work involves the diagnosis and management of dementia.

Child and adolescent psychiatry
Psychiatrists who work in this specialty assess and manage emotional and behavioural problems of children and adolescents to school leaving age. This involves team work between different professionals such as social workers, psychologists and education specialists.

Commonly psychotherapy involves working with people with personality disorder, interpersonal problems, depression and anxiety. It is about using talking treatments rather than medication. A key component is building a therapeutic relationship between doctor and patient.

Forensic psychiatry
This specialty covers the interaction between psychiatry and the law. It involves treating people who have committed crimes whilst mentally ill or people who become unwell in prison. Forensic psychiatrists also write court reports and give evidence in court. They work in secure hospitals and prisons.

Learning disability
People with learning disability may have conditions such as Down?s syndrome. Psychiatrists who work in this area are involved in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of mental health problems which occur in people with learning disability.

Would you make a good psychiatrist?
Are you a ?people? person, with a genuine interest in how other people think and feel?
Would you make a good detective and enjoy investigating complex situations?
Are you bright, patient and tactful?
Do you want to put your science into practice?

Are you interested in finding out what ?makes people tick??
Do you have the personal strength to face the difficult problems people tell you about?

If the answer to these questions is ?yes?, then psychiatry could be the medical specialty for you

You have a long road ahead of you, God Bless You :)


pank t 12.11.2010. 06:49

How do I get over my introvertness? I am so uncomfortable in social situations and I never meet new girls bc I have serous issues. Is there a key to being able to let loose a little bit?

pank t

Admin 12.11.2010. 06:49

The first step is focusing on what you CAN do rather than what you should do. Once you identify your capabilities, you can then focus on taking baby steps; life is long, you can take your time - especially when we're younger.

A few tips to consider:
If you are about to meet with people you know and what they generally speak about, practice speaking your point of view beforehand so you have a better idea of your points. Be firm, but be reasonable. Be open, but avoid being timid.

If you have a close friend, tell them your problem and ask them for help as well; those around you can and do make a difference. They also can critique you in certain situations.

Here is a good summary:
"Envision the type of extrovert you?d like to be. What?s your ideal outcome? If you feel too introverted and want to be more extroverted, start by working on your vision of your outcome. Chances are that if you?ve been making little progress in this area, you have a somewhat negative vision of extroverts. When I formed a positive vision of being an extrovert that included building genuine relationships with intelligent people I respect (as opposed to random, shallow socializing), I soon began attracting those relationships. Being a ?dumb jock? kind of extrovert still has no appeal to me.
Think of relationships in terms of what you can give, not in terms of what you can get. If you seek to build new relationships based on mutual giving and receiving, you?ll have no shortage of friends. Identify people with whom you?d like to build a relationship, and start by giving. I?ve found that my geeky knowledge is actually a tremendous strength when it comes to socializing because there are an awful lot of non-geeks who?d like to understand geeky stuff better, and I can explain it to them in ways they?ll understand. For example, I?ve been teaching some local speaker friends about blogging and web marketing, and in return I?m learning a lot from them about speaking, humor, etc. There are many intelligent people out there who?d love to have a geek as a friend. What can you bring to a relationship that will be of benefit to someone else? When you figure out what that is (and it?s probably many different things), you?ll have an easier time attracting new friends into your life.
Find the right social group for you. Consciously consider the types of people you?d want to have as friends. There?s no rule that says this has to be your peers or co-workers. I actually find myself more interested in making friends with people who are much older than me as opposed to people my own age or slightly younger. People around my age (34) tend to be very career- and family-oriented, but often in a somewhat mindless, socially conditioned way that isn?t centered around any consciously chosen life purpose or belief system. And people in their 20s, while often highly energetic, tend to be largely unfocused? or focused on trivial pursuits that just aren?t that important. So it?s been difficult for me to find people near my age where we have enough in common for a long-term friendship. I seem to have an easier time making friends with people in their 40s, 50, and older. They typically have greater knowledge and experience, more fascinating stories to share, more resources (information and ideas, financial resources, contacts), and a better sense of who they are and what they want to do with their lives. Often I find myself attending social events where I?m the youngest person in the room, but that feels very comfortable and normal for me. Don?t be afraid to stretch beyond the most obvious peer group and hang out with people from different ages, neighborhoods, cultures, countries, etc. You might find the variety to be a lot of fun.
Play from your strengths. It?s interesting that many introverts have no trouble socializing online. In that environment they?re able to play from their strengths. But you can also use your strengths consciously as leverage to branch out into more face-to-face socializing. For example, after I graduated college, I met a woman on a local BBS (before there was much of a World Wide Web). We got to chatting online over a period of weeks. Eventually we met in person and became friends, and I soon fell into her pre-existing social group through osmosis. My social calendar went from empty to full almost overnight. That woman, by the way, has been my wife for the past 7.5 years. If you socialize online, see if you can?t use that strength to build new local relationships. While people have done this in global forums like online games, I think it?s easier to try it in local forums. For instance, there are message boards for people who?ve recently moved to Las Vegas."


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