Writing Effectively Part 2

Comments (20)

Copyright 2004 by http://www.organicgreens.us and Loring Windblad. This article may be freely copied and used on other web sites only if it is copied complete with all links and text intact and unchanged except for minor improvements such as misspellings and typos.

In part 1 we covered:

The first secret of a successful business - Do it yourself until you can afford and need to hire outside help

The second secret of a successful business - Find your niche, make sure it fits what you are doing and can do, and develop it. Expand only to meet expanding demands.

The third secret of a successful business - When you need help outside your area of expertise be very, very careful. A degree in a field does not mean a person is expert in that field. Particularly true of writing.

The fourth secret of a successful business - You must know that you are at least equal to the best alternative out there....then make sure that your clients do benefit from your expertise more than they expected.

Well, glory be! We have only just begun.

The fourth secret of a successful business was the first one which dealt with effective writing.

The first secret of effective writing. In this article we'll deal with another aspect of effective writing: becoming the expert. We're talking writing here, but it equally applies to anything else which requires writing about it.

How do you create that one of 250 resumes that gets the job?

How do you create that business plan that successfully raises the funding money?

How do you write the grant that achieves success?

How do you write an article which gets the message across?

How do you create the brochure that stands out from the rest and is picked up? Oooops! That's a different article - later!

The second secret of effective writing - Whatever your language - and yes, I still speak and read and write a little Spanish and a little German - is know your language and use it correctly!

There're catchwords which'll trip you up, especially if English is not your first language. Contractions are a fine example. Slang, even that accepted as mainstream, is a killer for an ESL (English as a Second Language) person. Hyphenated words cause problems for many, me included. Homonyms are serious pitfalls: words such as to, too and two; there, their and they're; red and read; read and reed; site, cite and sight; write and right and copyright and copywrite (copywriting). And my old personal bugaboos, who's and whose, and who and whom!

Even more, your punctuation will set you apart from the crowd. In spoken English using the right word sets you apart from people who use the wrong word but you can actually slide by with the spoken word and not betray your shortcomings. However, in writing you definitely need to be aware of all of the above, particularly commas, semi-colons and colons.

In the written English you sink your own expertise with a simple little thing like a comma fault. What's a comma fault? Well, using a comma, which really shouldn't, be used - lie the two in this sentence! Or worse, when stringing together words in a series such as to, too, and two - a comma virtually never precedes an and.

How about using a semi-colon? This is a toughie! Generally you just should never use semi-colons. Then, when you do get to a place where neither a comma nor a colon fits, you might try the semi-colon. When reading back your sentence you might also decide to break it down and make two or three sentences instead?

OK, so you've learned the style sheets and you know how to use the right word and the correct punctuation - you got straight A's in English in primary school, secondary school and high school. But hey! That was 30 years ago. How about now?

Let's look at me as an example. I didn't get straight A's, but I did learn. I learned even more as an adult, later on. Yes, I graduated from HS back in the 1950's, 50 years ago, in fact. Then word processing came along and I became a typist for a living - I typed 100 words per minute (that's a story in itself, but not for here). But with word processing the basic styles of writing changed as well. Our standards in the 1970's were the NY Times Manual of Style and the US Government Printing Office's Style Manual (adopted from the NY Times manual). I got pretty good.

Then electronic publishing and the computer came along and the style changed again. We no longer ended sentences with two spaces; now we use only one. And we no longer ended paragraphs with two carriage returns; now we use only one.

Much to my surprise there is a new change now out. We're now in the 21st century and the new standard seems to have replaced "setting off special text" passages in quotes to setting off special text passages in italics! Quotes are out and italics are in!

Did this make it easier? Hah! Not on your life. You've still gotta be able to use quotes correctly. As an example, I quote from the Saturday Evening Post "Franklin P. Jones, said 'The moon is really made of yellow cheese' in the July 1968 edition."

Then there's the topic of spelling. If you cannot spell correctly do not count on your spell checker to make corrections for you. Corel Word Perfect spell-checker will not pick up a nu8mber in a word - nor will MS Word spell checker pick up that error. So your proofing had better be very good just to catch misspellings and typos. Every word needs to be checked carefully.

Finally, for this segment of writing effectively, when and where to use colloquialisms, slang and contractions in my writing?

In the case of contractions, personally I try not to use ain't at any time because I knew an old engineer once (with a Masters in Music and a PhD in Electronic Engineering) who used ain't all the time for emphasis on what not to say. It seemed every other word out of his mouth was ain't. I got the message - I don't use ain't! But the rest are fair game - provided they are used appropriately and correctly?

As for slang and colloquialisms, look back at this article and you will see them interspersed here and there. Effectively? Well, if you are with me this far, understanding what I am writing about, I must have been doing something right.

Your test, should you wish to take it, is to go through all the articles on my web site here, and check them for grammatical and punctuation errors.

And the grading on your test is simple. Keeping in mind grammar, punctuation and spelling/typos:
1.) If you don't find any or not very many errors in grammar or punctuation you need to find a business which does not involve effective writing.
2.) If you do find several errors, say an average of 1 or 2 for every article published on my web site, they there is hope for you. You may be able to learn to write effectively?
3.) If you find articles which are fraught with error, articles which should never have been released for publication, an average of three or more errors per article published on my web site, and errors in my own articles, then you truly do have the basics for a career in writing effectively.
4.) There is one author who has not only given permission to use his articles on other people's web sites but has also given permission to make corrections to his typographical errors. Find it and, if your first result puts in into the #3 category above, you are definitely a writing effectively expert!

Now all that remains is to polish it and go to work.

Good luck.

About the Author

Loring Windblad has operated his own HBBs for nearly 40 years, is a published author and freelance writer. Loring has written grants, business plans and resumes that got the job done right. His latest HBB endeavor is http://www.organicgreens.us


Chad 05.04.2010. 19:49

Interview questions related to the reliability of eyewitness testimony? Im writing a research paper on the unreliability of eyewitness testimony. I need to perform an interview consisting of 5-7 substantive questions and I am planning on interviewing either a local criminal courts judge or D.A. Do you have any recommendations of the type of questions to ask during my interview. Thank you in advance.


Admin 05.04.2010. 19:49

The bedrock of the American judicial process is the honesty of witnesses in trial. Eyewitness testimony can make a deep impression on a jury, which is often exclusively assigned the role of sorting out credibility issues and making judgments about the truth of witness statements.1 Perjury is a crime, because lying under oath can subvert the integrity of a trial and the legitimacy of the judicial system. However, perjury is defined as knowingly making a false statement?merely misremembering is not a crime.2 Moreover, the jury makes its determinations of witness credibility and veracity in secret, without revealing the reason for its final judgement.3 Recognizing the fallibility of witness memories, then, is especially important to participants in the judicial process, since many trials revolve around factual determinations of whom to believe. Rarely will a factual question result in a successful appeal?effectively giving many parties only one chance at justice. Arriving at a just result and a correct determination of truth is difficult enough without the added possibility that witnesses themselves may not be aware of inaccuracies in their testimony.

Several studies have been conducted on human memory and on subjects? propensity to remember erroneously events and details that did not occur. Elizabeth Loftus performed experiments in the mid-seventies demonstrating the effect of a third party?s introducing false facts into memory.4 Subjects were shown a slide of a car at an intersection with either a yield sign or a stop sign. Experimenters asked participants questions, falsely introducing the term "stop sign" into the question instead of referring to the yield sign participants had actually seen. Similarly, experimenters falsely substituted the term "yield sign" in questions directed to participants who had actually seen the stop sign slide. The results indicated that subjects remembered seeing the false image. In the initial part of the experiment, subjects also viewed a slide showing a car accident. Some subjects were later asked how fast the cars were traveling when they "hit" each other, others were asked how fast the cars were traveling when they "smashed" into each other. Those subjects questioned using the word "smashed" were more likely to report having seen broken glass in the original slide. The introduction of false cues altered participants? memories.

Courts, lawyers and police officers are now aware of the ability of third parties to introduce false memories to witnesses.5 For this reason, lawyers closely question witnesses regarding the accuracy of their memories and about any possible "assistance" from others in the formation of their present memories. However, psychologists have long recognized that gap filling and reliance on assumptions are necessary to function in our society. For example, if we did not assume that mail will be delivered, or that the supermarkets will continue to stock bread, we would behave quite differently than we do. We are constantly filling in the gaps in our recollection and interpreting things we hear. For instance, while on the subway we might hear garbled words like "next," "transfer," and "train." Building on our assumptions and knowledge, we may put together the actual statement: "Next stop 53rd Street, transfer available to the E train." Indeed, we may even remember having heard the full statement.

Once witnesses state facts in a particular way or identify a particular person as the perpetrator, they are unwilling or even unable?due to the reconstruction of their memory?to reconsider their initial understanding. When a witness identifies a person in a line-up, he is likely to identify that same person in later line-ups, even when the person identified is not the perpetrator. Although juries and decision-makers place great reliance on eyewitness identification, they are often unaware of the danger of false memories.

Memory is affected by retelling, and we rarely tell a story in a neutral fashion. By tailoring our stories to our listeners, our bias distorts the very formation of memory?even without the introduction of misinformation by a third party. The protections of the judicial system against prosecutors and police "assisting" a witness? memory may not sufficiently ensure the accuracy of those memories. Even though prosecutors refrain from "refreshing" witness A?s memory by showing her witness B?s testimony, the mere act of telling prosecutors what happened may bias and distort the witness?s memory. Eyewitness testimony, then, is innately suspect.

Lawyers place great import on testimony by the other side?s witness that favors their own side?s case. For example, defense attorneys make much of prosecution witnesses? recollection of exonerating details. In light of psychological studies demonstrating the effect of bias on memory, the reliance and weight placed on such "admissions" may be appropriate, since witnesses


Aaron 04.07.2009. 06:28

How can I effectively jump ahead in my novel? I'm writing my first novel and want to show different stages of the character's life starting from age 16 to 23. I have decided to split the book into 3 parts but the first part starts when she is 16 and now I want to jump ahead to her at age 18. How can I do this without ruining the story or looking like there is a big chunk missing? Any ideas would be appreciated.


Admin 04.07.2009. 06:28

At age 16 does she live with her parents or something?
And when she is 18 does she live by herself or with a friend?
If yes then maybe you could have her sitting in a lonely apartment or house by herself, and she could have just had her 18th so she could be looking at all the cards people had gotten her?
Or maybe you could start part 2 on the night of her 18th?
Maybe she is looking at a ring or bracelet her mum or someone might have gotten her for her 18th and you could have her remembering her 18th party or something?

Just have a play around with a few different things,, there is alot you could do (:
Good luck (:


:) 02.03.2011. 11:51

How can i memorise my German speech quickly and effectively? I have to say 6 paragraphs in German answering questions, I know what the questions are and have my answers written out. I have to do this in 2 days as a part of my GCSE. Are there any fast easy ways or revision things i can do to help? I'm really panicking and only know 2 paragraphs out of the 6 i have to know.


Admin 02.03.2011. 11:51

the best way is to repeat again and again


persephone 10.06.2009. 20:59

Any tips for effectively outlining a novel? I'm working on writing a fantasy story, and I'm having trouble figuring out what goes where. I've got the beginning and what I want to end up happening, but the bit in between is a little (a LOT) fuzzy. Any suggestions? Thanks!


Admin 10.06.2009. 20:59

I read a book about writing called "Plot & Structure" that talks about outlining and structuring your story in order to organize it well enough to write it.

Keep in mind, you don't HAVE to make an outline in order to write the story. Some authors say "I don't know exactly what will happen because my characters haven't done it yet." Some authors let the story flow, without structure. Others need it. Just know that not everyone needs an outline.

In the book Plot and Structure, there was a really simple formula for outlines. You've got a beginning, middle and end, separated sort of like this:

---------------| A |--------------------------------| B |-------

Beginning -| A |- Middle -| B |- End

There are 2 major points in the book, the transition between Beginning and Middle, and the transition between Middle and End.

Typically, the "end" of the beginning, transition A, happens when your main character is forced into action and it's impossible to return to their normal life without dire consequences. It's when Frodo leaves Bag End with the ring, it's when Harry leaves his family with Hagrid, it's when Dorothy is taken to Oz. The beginning is where you establish your character's morals, their life, their wants and their needs, and the Transition is when you force them to take action.

Try to find where your transition is. When is your character forced to do something, forced to take action to make something happen or to prevent something bad from happening? Is it possible for your character to say "no, I won't do this" and live a happy life? If it's still possible, then your transition isn't strong enough. If I, as a reader, think that the character could give up and it would be better than taking action, I would not believe in the story and it would be boring.

Now, the middle is where you introduce new characters, uncover complexities to the plot, and learn more and more about how your character can get what she/he wants. The important part is that the story is always moving forward, to the climax. After each scene, or each bit of story, ask yourself "how is this moving the story forward?" "what did my character learn that they didn't know before?" and "is my character better off or worse off than before?" If your character is better off, then WATCH OUT! Making characters happy is not recommended... happiness is not what makes stories good, happiness makes stories dull. Happiness is usually only a tool that makes the next event even more horrible. Only make your character content and happy if you're about to make their life much worse. It sounds crazy, but look at any book and you'll realize it's true. Any time they're happy, the story skips to when it gets complicated again.

Transition B happens before the climax. It's when your character has everything they need to fulfill what the entire story has been leading up to. If your character's been stuck in a magical world, this is when they face the monster who holds the key to get out. If your character's been fighting to rescue a friend, this is when they go to confront the captor.

The transition is a little more vague than the first one, but pretty much... the story can't stop until the climax happens, once you pass Transition B. In the middle, your character might have phone conversations, might be sitting and thinking about what to do, might be traveling or getting ready for battle. That's all middle action, rising action. The end is where the character is constantly doing something until their goal is met. Frodo didn't stop to rest once he was inside Mount Doom. Harry Potter didn't eat dinner once he was under the trapdoor in Sorcerer's Stone. It was constant action, no jumps in time, until the finale.

Now, after the climax, you'll still have more story to tell, but you won't introduce new things. The end holds the climax, AND the falling action, when you give your readers a chance to breathe, and you give your main character his life back (or you show how the character will deal with their life never being the same again)

Hope that helps! I'd really encourage you to read Plot & Structure - it's changed how I write, for the better!


=] 06.12.2007. 01:54

How can I improve above all my classmates on clarinet? I've been playing now for 3 years. I have a wooden clarinet (a Lablanc Soloist) which is new. I am currently 2nd chair out of about 15, but I want to be the best. How can I do this, other than private lessons and practicing alot? I already practice about six hours a week.
What are more effective ways to practice?


Admin 06.12.2007. 01:54

Well ...........

1) Practise! But don't just spend time in the practise room for the sake of it. 1 solid hour of GOOD practising a day is better then 6 hours of just fooling around! So think about WHAT you practise! Trevor Wye, although he is a flute teacher, has an excellent way of using practise time effectively. He divides practise into 8 parts these are warm ups and memory, scales, finger exercises, tone colour exercises, studies (etudes), pieces, and orchestral studies! Now you many not do orchestral studies or finger exercises but you can substitute this for your band pieces. Other topics that you can put instead are listening, improvising, sight reading etc depending on what you need to practise! The point is to spend time effectively!

Also don't Practise the things that are easy and that you already know how to play. Practise the difficult bits!!!

2) You also need to make good use of your lesson time! During practise write down any questions you have! and ask your teacher. Borrow her/his Cd's and music! Tell them your goal and they will help you get there! Use their resources that they have!

Good luck with your goal!


brighteyeskix 02.05.2006. 05:08

how do you start a letter of reccommendation? an old teacher asked me if i would mind writing him a letter of reccomendation for a new position he is applying for. i am thrilled, i feel like its an honor, but i dont know how to continue past the "To whom it may concern" bit. i really would like it to sound professional and well written...any help?


Admin 02.05.2006. 05:08

In April students ask a site supervisor or another adult to write a letter of recommendation. Students should choose someone who is not a family member, can provide a well-written letter, knows the student well enough to be credible and thinks highly of the student and his/her abilities. The recommendation letter is filed in the student's portfolio and can be used for applications. Request the letter 2-3 weeks before the due date. Below is a request for a recommendation letter used by students.

Download form letter pdf

Students may wish to download the Word document template to personalize his or her request for a letter of recommendation.
Download Word template

To Whom It May Concern:
The students of Shorecrest High School have been involved in community service work as part of their English class during this school year. As a final assignment they will be asking you for a letter of recommendation. This letter will be placed in their portfolios in the Career Center. When they are applying for jobs, scholarships and/or college admissions in the future, they may include your letter as documentation of their volunteer/work experience. Many of you have written letters of recommendation before, but for those who are unsure here are some suggestions:

? The letter should be typed.
? Include the name of person being reviewed.
? Include your name, address and phone number.
? Provide explanation of your relationship to and the length of time you have known the individual.
? State the limitations of your recommendation.
? Give your insight into the individual. Cover such things as motivation, maturity, independence, or originality, capacity for growth, special talents, enthusiasm, attendance, or information, which will help differentiate the student from others.
? Be brief. Limit it to one page.
? Please sign the letter.
? If the May 19th due date would prohibit use of the US Postal Service, you may FAX the letter to me at 206.361.4284. Emails are inappropriate for use as a letter of recommendation as they are not signed.

The first and concluding sentences are very important. The first sentence should get the attention of the reader, and the last sentence should effectively summarize your recommendation.

I hope you will find these suggestions helpful. Thank you for having our student at your site this year and for taking the time to write the letter of recommendation. I would appreciate receiving the letter of recommendation by May 19. If you have any questions, please call me at 206.361.4285.


Colleen Kiyonaga
Community Service Teacher


Amanda B 04.08.2009. 04:50

What are some methods to prevent police corruption? Police corruption seems to be an increasing problem in the United States as well as most of the world. With higher reports of police brutality, racial profiling by police, and plain system abuses, many people have a growing distrust of the police and their methods.

In your opinion, what are some methods that can reduce and even prevent corruption? A reward based "tattle tale" system sometimes works as it rewards officers for reporting others, but many police officers seem to "stick together" preventing this from working effectively. What are other methods that could help? What are you thoughts in general about police corruption? Have you directly been affected by it?

Amanda B

Admin 04.08.2009. 04:50

Controlling police misconduct involves two main tasks. First, prevent it from occurring in the first place. Second, reduce and eliminate it once it exists. There are two main approaches to the control of police misconduct: internal and external.

Internal approaches take place w/in the dept and generally are more effective when the problem is not too serious. Some internal approaches include:

1. Strengthening police leadership - the chief and top administrators have to clearly and publicly show their commitment to anticorruption policies
2. Developing clear written dept policies and procedures that ?draw the line? and make it clear to the officers and the community what behaviors are and are not acceptable. Violations of policies must be followed up with disciplinary action. The problem here is often where exactly to draw the line.
3. Focus on administrative control. The dept environment must be changed to emphasize an anti-corruption stance. This involves increased supervision of line officers, giving supervisors increased responsibility for combating corruption, and eliminating dept practices that encourage corruption (e.g., arrest quotas). In addition, opportunities for corruption must be reduced. To do this, depts might make public appeals to citizens to stop offering "gifts" to officers and/or make high-visibility arrests of people attempting to offer bribes. Police work could be made more visible to further reduce opportunities for misconduct - requring officers to keep daily activity logs, requiring regular check-ins during patrol, and so on. Rewarding honest officers and encouraging officers to report corruption within the dept also should be implemented.
4. Depts need to develop and/or expand their internal affairs division (IAD), with an increased focus on internal corruption investigations
5. Increase the responsibility and authority of non-IAD supervisors to take action against most types of corruption. Require all administrators and supervisors, even first-line supervisors, to deal with corruption among officers under their command and give them the authority to deal with problems. This would also include disciplining members of the chain of command who fail to deal with corruption by officers under their command
6. Finally, put more emphasis on corruption control at the selection and training phase of policing. This would include greater focus on each applicant?s integrity recruitment phase (background checks, integrity tests, polygraph tests) as well as providing more anti-corruption and ethics training at the academy.

External approaches are activities by other agencies. This becomes necessary when misconduct has so pervaded dept that some sort of independent and unbiased control is needed External approaches include:
1.Set up watchdog groups and special investigations. Use external and politically independent commissions to investigate corruption. BEcause they are not part of the department, hopefully they will be unbiased and not influenced by corruption in the dept. The problem with this, is that because the members of the commission are not police officers, they may not understand how policing really works.
2. The courts could act as a greater mechanism of police accountability. Officers who violate the law may be subject to criminal prosecution. OF course, his only deals with individual corrupt officers, not the problems in the dept that led to the corruption.
3. Use the mass media to expose corruption, mobilize public opinion, and provide chief with support for anti-corruption policy which may be unpopular with officers
4. Increase citizen involvement. Some depts have civilian review boards or oversight committees who monitor the dept and review allegations of police misconduct. They work separately from but parallel to IAD.
5. Decriminalize some vice offenses. This removes police involvement and reduces opportunities for corruption (which is usually a serious issue in vice bureaus)
6. Change the political environment. If corrupt politicians are forced out of office or encouraged to retire, and replaced with non-corrupt ones, a political climate that does not support corruption may develop and spread to the police as well as elected officials


Dave 26.01.2013. 12:10

Why did protestants want the monastries to cdlose down in the 1500s? Hi
I am doing a piece of homework and we have to write a speech protesting against the closure of an abbey. Why did the protestants want to close the monastries and what would their arguments be? I just need bulletpoints so I can add the arguments into the speech.
Thanks for your help everybody!


Admin 26.01.2013. 12:10

I presume you are asking about the dissolution of the monastries in England during Henry VIII's reign.
The monastries were not closed down by protestants but as a result of Thomas Cromwell's commission to inquire into the monastries. This commission was ordered by Henry VIII who himself was a catholic throughout his life, despite his excommunication and the subsequent break from Rome.
The break with Rome was part of the English reformation, which was essentially different from the reformation that was sweeping Europe at that time. On the continent there was a religous reformation led by people such as Martin Luther who protested (viz they were protestants) against the widespread corruption and extravagent living of the catholic church. In England the reformation was not so much religous as political. Henry VIII wanted his marriage to Catherine of Aragon anulled by the Pope which was refused. Despite this Henry married Anne Boleyn (in secret and before his marriage to Catherine was anulled). Henry then had his archbishop Thomas Cranmer declare his marriage to Catherine anulled against the Pope's wishes. The Pope excommunicated Henry who then declared himself supreme head of the church in England, and set up the commission to investigate the monastries.
Thomas Cromwell found that in many of the monastries there was rampant corruption.
This gave Henry his reason (/excuse) to close down the monastries. Hence we can see that there were probably three main reasons for the dissolutiuon.
1. To cleanse from England the rampant corruption that was endemic throughout the catholic church at that time.
2. To raise money to fund Henry's extravagent lifestyle. By closing down the monastries and confiscating their lands and property he could raise those funds.
3. To neutralize the resistance that existed within the monastries towards the Act of Supremacy which made Henry (rather than the Pope) supreme head of the English Church.
If you wished to argue against the English closures you would probably want to
- criticise Henry's extravagent lifestyle which was now being funded by what were church assets
- argue against Henry usurping the Pope's authority and declaring himself supreme head of the church.
- criticise Henry's matrimonal state of affairs (eg: effectively marrying Anne Boleyn bigamously and having his marriage annulled without Papal authority as this more than anything else led to the break with Rome and the subsequent Thomas Cromwell commission.
However, those that did argue against the King at that time were apt to lose their head (quite literally). Even disagreeing with the King but remaining silent (as did Sir Thomas More) was no protection against the King's wrath.


Yuri 01.12.2008. 08:05

What were some of the positive aspects of the European colonization of Australia? I'm writing an essay on the effects of colonization on indigenous people and for Australia, all I can find are the negative aspects.


Admin 01.12.2008. 08:05

Background Information:

The British settled this Great Southland in 1788, when captain Arthur Phillip landed upon the shores of Botany Bay. Admiral James Cook provided a report about the isolated continent in 1780, and encouraged the expedition. Anyway, penal colonies were established for convicts, where they would serve their sentence. Gradually widespread migration from Europe was endorsed by the government.

Advantages: The Europeans mainly benefited due to the colonization of Australia. However, Aborigines did gain something.

1. Australia was officially part of the English Empire - it contained numerous natural resources like gold, iron ore and coal, that could be extracted. Extensive farming practices and a wool trade progressed slowly. Britain capitalised on this economically, which helped stimulate growth and development. It soon became essential for Britain to claim their funds and assets from international bodies, especially during World War II. There was a heavy dependence on oil, tanks, jeeps, soldiers, food and navy support in the 1939-1945 conflict.

2. The country had a strategic position and a great geographical location. At the time, the English were at war with the Netherlands, who had control over Indonesia and several small fragment islands. The Dutch East India Company were centred here, and Britain could use Australia as a good area to block trading vessels from docking. Often the Dutch sailed by the East coast, an example is the Batavia in 1629. Keep in mind it is also bordered by water from all sides - very hard to attack effectively, as the land itself is so huge.

3. Technology was brought to this rather primitive place. Aboriginals didn't have the concept of the working wheel, nor did they understand how to build roads, buildings, sewerage systems, aqueducts or even work farms. Even the Romans had engineers and architechts who could design these projects 1,800 years before. European colonization brought all of the modern innovations to Australia. Everything became mechanized through the introduction of commercial business and industrial sectors. A more civilized and advanced nation was constructed upon the prinicples of political institutions.

4. It brought reality to the indigenous Australians. Their simple nomadic lifestyle of hunting and gathering was similar to that of civilizations in 5000 BC. They reaped many rewards from English domination of Australia, but we must not forget their mistreatment. It was not until 1967 that Harold Holt held the referendum to change the constitution. This altered phrases from section 51 and 127, which stated Aboriginies required special laws to govern them. Basically the revision of the document assured them full citizenship rights. In this day and age, the opportunities, freedom and privileges for Aboriginals are within their own capable hands. They have been the given the ability to create their own destiny and live in a prosperous, rich society which is the total opposite before colonization.

5. A totally unique culture emerged, surfacing from a profound sense of nationalism. Australia was declared a seperate entity from the Motherland in 1901, when they became a federation. Their attitudes, beliefs, customs and values had all changed over the lengthy 120 years period.

To conclude, I would like to say, that despite these good aspects, Aboriginals suffered significantly initially. Disease from smallpox was unknowingly unleashed upon the population (no it wasnt intentionally), and many indigenous Australians perished. There is a strong debate among historians as to whether there was a deliberate genocide policy, but this cannot be proven. An interesting point is that in 1837 the British parliamentary commitee accussed Aussies of purposelly killing natives. This cannot be confirmed and with lack of evidence, probably will never be. Aborigines lost a lot of their original culture as a result of much devastation. It has affected generations of children who deserved equality and peace, but were denied it under British imperialism.

Anyway, Good luck.


Soft Grass 26.11.2007. 03:20

Can someone please recommend me some methods to learn to read English texts effectively ? Ok i can read and can understand short texts but i cant remember things i have read up to 2 sentences before the part of the text i'm at. How do i improve it ? Also i can listen to short sentences but for longer and more complicated structures i can't seem to get the general idea being conveyed, for example, in lectures and long conversations. Please help me ! It would be better if it can be done in a short time ( i have 2 more weeks until the assessment ) and with 1 or 2 people

Soft Grass

Admin 26.11.2007. 03:20

I can only speak from my own experience, but maybe it will help you.

I remember a lot more if I take notes, even if I never look at those notes again. Something about translating what I'm reading or hearing into my own words really helps with retention.

For particularly long or tough texts, I get hold of a copy if I can, so I can mark it up. My copy of "The Poetics" looks like a roadmap -- words are highlighted to look up later, sections are underlined and circled, and the margins are full of comments, paraphrases, and comments.

I'll also re-read sections if I find I'm having trouble with them, sometimes five or more times before I begin writing.


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