On Empathy - Part II

Comments (19)


Alas, such an agreement is meaningless. We cannot (yet) measure sadness, quantify it, crystallize it, access it in any way from the outside. We are totally and absolutely reliant on your introspection and my introspection. There is no way anyone can prove that my "sadness" is even remotely similar to your sadness. I may be feeling or experiencing something that you might find hilarious and not sad at all. Still, I call it "sadness" and I empathize with you.

This would not have been that grave if empathy hadn't been the cornerstone of morality.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1999 Edition:

"Empathy and other forms of social awareness are important in the development of a moral sense. Morality embraces a person's beliefs about the appropriateness or goodness of what he does, thinks, or feels... Childhood is ... the time at which moral standards begin to develop in a process that often extends well into adulthood. The American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg hypothesized that people's development of moral standards passes through stages that can be grouped into three moral levels...

At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles that he himself has evaluated and that he accepts as inherently valid, regardless of society's opinion. He is aware of the arbitrary, subjective nature of social standards and rules, which he regards as relative rather than absolute in authority.

Thus the bases for justifying moral standards pass from avoidance of punishment to avoidance of adult disapproval and rejection to avoidance of internal guilt and self-recrimination. The person's moral reasoning also moves toward increasingly greater social scope (i.e., including more people and institutions) and greater abstraction (i.e., from reasoning about physical events such as pain or pleasure to reasoning about values, rights, and implicit contracts)."

But, if moral reasoning is based on introspection and empathy - it is, indeed, dangerously relative and not objective in any known sense of the word. Empathy is a unique agreement on the emotional and experiential content of two or more introspective processes in two or more subjective. Such an agreement can never have any meaning, even as far as the parties to it are concerned. They can never be sure that they are discussing the same emotions or experiences. There is no way to compare, measure, observe, falsify or verify (prove) that the "same" emotion is experienced identically by the parties to the empathy agreement. Empathy is meaningless and introspection involves a private language despite what Wittgenstein had to say. Morality is thus reduced to a set of meaningless private languages.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica:

"... Others have argued that because even rather young children are capable of showing empathy with the pain of others, the inhibition of aggressive behaviour arises from this moral affect rather than from the mere anticipation of punishment. Some scientists have found that children differ in their individual capacity for empathy, and, therefore, some children are more sensitive to moral prohibitions than others.

Young children's growing awareness of their own emotional states, characteristics, and abilities leads to empathy--i.e., the ability to appreciate the feelings and perspectives of others. Empathy and other forms of social awareness are in turn important in the development of a moral sense... Another important aspect of children's emotional development is the formation of their self-concept, or identity--i.e., their sense of who they are and what their relation to other people is.

According to Lipps's concept of empathy, a person appreciates another person's reaction by a projection of the self into the other. In his Ästhetik, 2 vol. (1903-06; 'Aesthetics'), he made all appreciation of art dependent upon a similar self-projection into the object."

This may well be the key. Empathy has little to do with the other person (the empathee). It is simply the result of conditioning and socialization. In other words, when we hurt someone - we don't experience his pain. We experience OUR pain. Hurting somebody - hurts US. The reaction of pain is provoked in US by OUR own actions. We have been taught a learned response of feeling pain when we inflict it upon another. But we have also been taught to feel responsible for our fellow beings (guilt). So, we experience pain whenever another person claims to experience it as well. We feel guilty.

In sum:

To use the example of pain, we experience it in tandem with another person because we feel guilty or somehow responsible for his condition. A learned reaction is activated and we experience (our kind of) pain as well. We communicate it to the other person and an agreement of empathy is struck between us.

We attribute feelings, sensations and experiences to the object of our actions. It is the psychological defence mechanism of projection. Unable to conceive of inflicting pain upon ourselves - we displace the source. It is the other's pain that we are feeling, we keep telling ourselves, not our own.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica:

"Perhaps the most important aspect of children's emotional development is a growing awareness of their own emotional states and the ability to discern and interpret the emotions of others. The last half of the second year is a time when children start becoming aware of their own emotional states, characteristics, abilities, and potential for action; this phenomenon is called self-awareness... (coupled with strong narcissistic behaviours and traits - SV)...

This growing awareness of and ability to recall one's own emotional states leads to empathy, or the ability to appreciate the feelings and perceptions of others. Young children's dawning awareness of their own potential for action inspires them to try to direct (or otherwise affect) the behaviour of others...

...With age, children acquire the ability to understand the perspective, or point of view, of other people, a development that is closely linked with the empathic sharing of others' emotions...

One major factor underlying these changes is the child's increasing cognitive sophistication. For example, in order to feel the emotion of guilt, a child must appreciate the fact that he could have inhibited a particular action of his that violated a moral standard. The awareness that one can impose a restraint on one's own behaviour requires a certain level of cognitive maturation, and, therefore, the emotion of guilt cannot appear until that competence is attained."

That empathy is a REACTION to external stimuli that is fully contained within the empathor and then projected onto the empathee - is clearly demonstrated by "inborn empathy". It is the ability to exhibit empathy and altruistic behaviour in response to facial expressions. Newborns react this way to their mother's facial expression of sadness or distress.

This serves to prove that empathy has very little to do with the feelings, experiences or sensations of the other (the empathee). Surely, the infant has no idea what it is like to feel sad and definitely not what it is like for his mother to feel sad. In this case, it is a complex reflexive reaction. Later on, empathy is still rather reflexive, the result of conditioning.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica quotes fascinating research which dramatically proves the object-independent nature of empathy. Empathy is an internal reaction, an internal process, triggered by external cue provided by animate objects. It is communicated to the empathee-other by the empathor but the communication and the resulting agreement ("I know how you feel therefore we agree on how you feel") is rendered meaningless by the absence of a monovalent, unambiguous dictionary.

"An extensive series of studies indicated that positive emotion feelings enhance empathy and altruism. It was shown by the American psychologist Alice M. Isen that relatively small favours or bits of good luck (like finding money in a coin telephone or getting an unexpected gift) induced positive emotion in people and that such emotion regularly increased the subjects' inclination to sympathize or provide help.

Several studies have demonstrated that positive emotion facilitates creative problem solving. One of these studies showed that positive emotion enabled subjects to name more uses for common objects. Another showed that positive emotion enhanced creative problem solving by enabling subjects to see relations among objects (and other people - SV) that would otherwise go unnoticed. A number of studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of positive emotion on thinking, memory, and action in pre-school and older children."

If empathy increases with positive emotion (a result of good luck, for instance) - then it has little to do with its objects and a lot to do with the person in whom it is provoked.

ADDENDUM - Interview granted to the National Post, Toronto, Canada, July 2003

Q. How important is empathy to proper psychological functioning?

A. Empathy is more important socially than it is psychologically. The absence of empathy - for instance in the Narcissistic and Antisocial personality disorders - predisposes people to exploit and abuse others. Empathy is the bedrock of our sense of morality. Arguably, aggressive behavior is as inhibited by empathy at least as much as it is by anticipated punishment.

But the existence of empathy in a person is also a sign of self-awareness, a healthy identity, a well-regulated sense of self-worth, and self-love (in the positive sense). Its absence denotes emotional and cognitive immaturity, an inability to love, to truly relate to others, to respect their boundaries and accept their needs, feelings, hopes, fears, choices, and preferences as autonomous entities.

Q. How is empathy developed?

A. It may be innate. Even toddlers seem to empathize with the pain - or happiness - of others (such as their caregivers). Empathy increases as the child forms a self-concept (identity). The more aware the infant is of his or her emotional states, the more he explores his limitations and capabilities - the more prone he is to projecting this new found knowledge unto others. By attributing to people around him his new gained insights about himself, the child develop a moral sense and inhibits his anti-social impulses. The development of empathy is, therefore, a part of the process of socialization.

But, as the American psychologist Carl Rogers taught us, empathy is also learned and inculcated. We are coached to feel guilt and pain when we inflict suffering on another person. Empathy is an attempt to avoid our own self-imposed agony by projecting it onto another.

Q. Is there an increasing dearth of empathy in society today? Why do you think so?

A. The social institutions that reified, propagated and administered empathy have imploded. The nuclear family, the closely-knit extended clan, the village, the neighborhood, the Church- have all unraveled. Society is atomized and anomic. The resulting alienation fostered a wave of antisocial behavior, both criminal and "legitimate". The survival value of empathy is on the decline. It is far wiser to be cunning, to cut corners, to deceive, and to abuse - than to be empathic. Empathy has largely dropped from the contemporary curriculum of socialization.

In a desperate attempt to cope with these inexorable processes, behaviors predicated on a lack of empathy have been pathologized and "medicalized". The sad truth is that narcissistic or antisocial conduct is both normative and rational. No amount of "diagnosis", "treatment", and medication can hide or reverse this fact. Ours is a cultural malaise which permeates every single cell and strand of the social fabric.

Q. Is there any empirical evidence we can point to of a decline in empathy?

Empathy cannot be measured directly - but only through proxies such as criminality, terrorism, charity, violence, antisocial behavior, related mental health disorders, or abuse.

Moreover, it is extremely difficult to separate the effects of deterrence from the effects of empathy.

If I don't batter my wife, torture animals, or steal - is it because I am empathetic or because I don't want to go to jail?

Rising litigiousness, zero tolerance, and skyrocketing rates of incarceration - as well as the ageing of the population - have sliced intimate partner violence and other forms of crime across the United States in the last decade. But this benevolent decline had nothing to do with increasing empathy.
The statistics are open to interpretation but it would be safe to say that the last century has been the most violent and least empathetic in human history. Wars and terrorism are on the rise, charity giving on the wane (measured as percentage of national wealth), welfare policies are being abolished, Darwininan models of capitalism are spreading. In the last two decades, mental health disorders were added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association whose hallmark is the lack of empathy. The violence is reflected in our popular culture: movies, video games, and the media.

Empathy - supposedly a spontaneous reaction to the plight of our fellow humans - is now channeled through self-interested and bloated non-government organizations or multilateral outfits. The vibrant world of private empathy has been replaced by faceless state largesse. Pity, mercy, the elation of giving are tax-deductible. It is a sorry sight.

About the Author

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com

Comments

? Hala ? 27.08.2008. 14:04

What are the religious and spiritual reasons for fasting? I'm just curious about the reasoning behind fasting. I'm especially interested in why Muslims fast? Is it to gain a greater appreciation for what we are fortunate to have and to feel empathy for those less fortunate? What are the main reasons for fasting?

? Hala ?

Admin 27.08.2008. 14:04

There are many reasons why a person might choose to fast:

1) Jesus indicated we would
In the sermon on the mount Jesus talked about the time 'when we fast' and how we should act at such times. It was clear that he expected this to form a normal part of worship and prayer. He said that his disciples didn't fast because he was with them but indicated they would when he was with them no longer.

2) To accompany prayer
Before we go any further, fasting is not a magical tool that gets us the answers to prayer that we want. Fasting may accompany prayer for a number of reasons:

i) to demonstrate our commitment to the issue we are praying for
ii) to free up time to focus on God and praying for the issue
iii) to remind ourselves that 'man does not live on bread alone but on every word that comes from God'

3) As a discipline
Fasting is a discipline for many religions and indeed also should be for Christians - not because it wins us favour with God but because it reminds us of our need for Him to sustain us even as food sustains us. A time of fasting can be a very spiritual experience and if done for the glory of God can have a deep impact on the person fasting and the people around them.


These are just some of the reasons - I'm sure there are many others which might include reminding ourselves to be thankful for what we have and to feel empathy with those who are less fortunate. In this way was can also fast from material pleasures, fine foods, alcohol, television and many other things. Fasting does not bend God's ear to hear us more because we are fasting... it may however result in more effective prayer because of what it achieves in us rather than the physical demonstration that it is.

Every blessing!

Admin

ella s 23.05.2007. 00:06

How long after I put Frontline on can I give my dog a bath? (Part II)? I read the instructions in the Frontline box -- nothing was stated about how long to bathe the dog before treatment. So I let her run in the ocean yesterday, but no bath. This morning, when her coat was all dry again, I gave her the treatment just on the skin, between the shoulderblades like you're supposed to.

Then she decided to roll in a rotted deer carcass.

Yeah. Those of you who have an idea of the stench eminating from my precious canine right now, I thank you for your empathy. And we still have to get home in my car. (She's lounging leisurely outside my office at the moment, basking in the glory of her stinkiness.)

Ideas anyone? Spot cleaning okay in this case, since she managed to miss gooping herself on the shoulders? Thanks for everyone's feedback!!

ella s

Admin 23.05.2007. 00:06

It's okay to bathe her...the Frontline will stay on.

Admin

Momofthreeboys 21.05.2012. 17:02

Does the Christian idea of sin imply that people are inherently bad? This is completely foreign (and reprehensible) to my worldview. I would like to understand how and why anyone could believe that. Humans are born with such a deeply ingrained sense of empathy that even the most damaged of us has to justify psychopathogical behavior by twisting his/her view of others to be nonhuman or less than human. How could a creature so full of empathy be viewed as inherently bad?

Momofthreeboys

Admin 21.05.2012. 17:02

It is just a major part of a con game. People are told that they are born bad to make them have terrible guilt feelings about it. Then, they are expected to buy relief from this guilt from preachers for high fees. The Jews have long been masters of arousing guilt feelings. Jewish mothers do it to their children, Jews did it to Germans after World War II and religions created by Jews use that to encourage people to pay preachers well and regularly. Christianity has little contact with reality. It wants none.

Admin

UltimateRollo 18.09.2009. 05:28

What was the name of the band that covered "don't you forget about me," @ the end of Community? The end of the pilot episode, Community, a cover of the song "Don't You Forget About Me" (originally performed by Simple Minds) is played...does anyone know the name of the artist of this version of the song?

(I apologize for my horrible sentence structure, but I have been imbibing this evening. Thanks for your support and patience. Please answer.)

UltimateRollo

Admin 18.09.2009. 05:28

The song has been covered by numerous artists including:

* Another class (1993) vocals by Peter Gast. This cd single contains 4 different versions of the song.
* UK dance duo Best Company in 1992, which was a hit on the UK dance charts.
* Alternative metal band Life of Agony on their 1995 album Ugly.
* Billy Idol on his 2001 album Greatest Hits.
* Punk rock band Bouncing Souls on their 2002 album The Bad, the Worse, and the Out of Print.
* Eurodance/hi-NRG artist Belle Lawrence in 2003, which was distributed through Almighty Records (an audio sample can be heard on the official Almighty Records website[3]).
* Shoegaze/dream pop band Absinthe Blind on their 2004 album Winning is Our Business and Business is Good.
* Punk pop band Rufio on the 2005 compilation album Punk Goes 80's.
* Power metal band Steel Prophet on their 2006 album Genesis.
* David Schommer featuring Lucy Woodward for the soundtrack of the 2006 comedy film Accepted.
* Punk pop band New Found Glory on their 2007 album From the Screen to Your Stereo Part II, and have been playing this live on their "Not Without a Fight" tour.
* Empathy on their album Under the Lost Smile.
* Soluzione on their album Don't You - Single. (iTunes only)
* The German metal band Atrocity on their 2008 cover album Werk 80 II
* The Austrian metal band Darkwell on their 2004 album "Metatron".
* Christian Alternative Rock band, Hawk Nelson for JC Penny.
* On American Idol Season 7, Top 16 week by Michael Johns.

Admin

Isabella 20.05.2013. 09:03

I'm obsessed with things related to suffering and pain. Are there others? There are several problems with my.. soul or mind or I don't know how to say this. I'm obsessed with suffering. Not suffering from feelings, like in heart, but more like pain, caused by injuries or sickness. I've always loved scenes in films when a character was shot or stabbed or something, and he was dying. Men are dying more often in films. When I see a scene like this I always rewind it and watch it all over again several times.

As a child (5-6), after watching films like Balto and Lions' King, playing with my friends, I always wanted to play that I'm the bad guy from the film, this is the epic fight scene, and I get injured, and I'm dying. (like wheezing and trying to get up but falling back down).
I always wanted to create such scenes but they weren't taking part as I wanted them to.

In primary school I usually strached myself from time to time as hard as I could. Then I pushed one nail only on my skin and slotted little pieces of skin out. Seemed OK, but later my parents saw the little scars (about 10-14) and I had to make up stories what happened.

I'm always wondering about getting shot and dying. Not shot in the head, but shoulder or stomach or leg. I don't even have to be dying but suffering. Sometimes II have dreams about getting shot. Of course I can't know how it feels but with might and main I try to imagine it. Those are my favourite dreams.

Today I tried a few times cutting myself with our very sharp ceramic knife. It was the easiest way, however it was hard to hide the scars, or if seen, explain them...
I?m 17 by the way.
So now, at night in bed I push my thumb into my stomach, laying on it for bigger pressure. I push it as deep as possible. In order for it to hurt I don't cut that nail just a little bit. It hurts pretty much, but I figured if then I tauten my muscles it is even worse, my nail cutting in between the muscle fibres.
And, if I do it always on the same area, than I have only one scar. I said I hit myself (i'm kind of clumsy anyway).
I still enjoy films in which a character dies slowly, or he knows he's going to die and he accepts it and the moments before his death, the emotions shown on his face. (eg. Star Wars- death of Qui Gon, or Source code- Jake Gyllenhaal shot by the assassin or Orlando Bloom stabbed by Davy Jones (Pirates of the Caribbean) and dying. etc)

But hurting myself is not my only problem with myself I'm concerned about.
I don't feel empathy or feel sorry for anybody. I've been at funerals. My great-grandmother died, than my grandmother's brother whom I loved very much. I didn't, I couldn't cry.
I don?t feel sad when I hear that someone died, I almost consider it not that bad, there are too many people on this planet anyway.
Sad films, chatastrophies, deaths in family, I?m still calm, no emotions.
I would never hurt an other human being, but I?ve always been wondering how does it feel to take one?s life. I?d never do that, I?m smarter than that, but still. Killing someone is kind of an interesting topic to me. I often read articles about serial killers and psychopaths.
I?m really scared about how my mind works. The things I feel (or more the things I DON?T), and the things I feel I gotta do.
I?m scared if something?s wrong with me, something serious, people just think in a so much different way that I do. If something?s obvious for me, it can be terrifying for them. I?ve been through situations so awkward when I said what I had in mind instead of what the society expected me to say, and I?ll never forget the looks I got. From my mother, from friends, from my family. So now I?m at the point that I never say what I think, just nod, or say something else. I cannot share my thoughts or I?d scare them away. I?m wearing a mask everyday and it is exhausting. In school it?s easier not talking to anyone, but at home there?s my Mom, whom I?d never want to know what a monster she raised. Monster is a strong word I know, but sometimes I feel that way.

Sorry for the long explaining, but if you read it and you feel the same way please contact me, because I don?t really know what to do and I?m scared of what I am.!

Isabella

Kentucky Woman 05.05.2009. 16:09

Thomas Sowell Said it all about Supreme Court Justice. What do you think? Readers only.? http://www.creators.com/opinion/thomas-sowell/-empathy-versus-law-part-ii.html

Kentucky Woman

Admin 05.05.2009. 16:09

I couldn't agree more. It is not the job of a judge to make decisions based on his or her empathy and understanding as Obama seems to think. It is the job of a justice to make decisions based solely on the law. There is a reason that the statue of Lady of Justice is blindfolded. The law should apply to everyone equally, regardless of race, age, situation, or religion. If Obama is allowed to put his type of justice on the bench, it will be a step away from equal rights.

Admin

killz s 01.11.2007. 16:56

do you like gay people? i think its stupid. gay marriage even more so. marriage is not your love story part II. its a continuation of life. everyone dislikes gays and lesbians...why dont they just tell us the truth that they dont like it that way either and are afraid to tell this?

killz s

Admin 01.11.2007. 16:56

Yes. They tend to be far more gentle, caring and unbiased then most straight people. Fundamentalists in particular could learn a lot on that respect. They tend to be more open about who they are (unless they live with or near the aforementioned...), more willing to show empathy, sympathy and love, more fun to be around, better conversationalists and more fastidious in both their use of words and personal appearance.
From a logical point of view, as a straight guy, I also love them to bits. Every gay bloke out there is not only one bit of competition removed, but he will promptly go off and remove another bit of competition. As a genaral rule they also have far more women around them, so a gay is really the straight guys best friend.

On a final note, I love my (wonderfully camp) brother very much, and I will thank you not to try and tell me what I think. Strangely enough, I am capable of making descisions and using rational thought without your somewhat egotistical and bigoted consent. He is happy, I am happy. You, evidently, are not. I suggest you learn to deal with it, because in this wonderful ol' life you will meet many people who disagree with your opinions and think you stupid, and there is nothing you can do to change it. I would also suggest you work on your grammar.........

Admin

Happy Hiram 10.04.2011. 16:23

A collaboration between HH & Love Child. Part II. C/C? Self-Made Mana (Part II)
.....
Miracles CAN be measured by equations and rules
and unicorns tamed using just simple tools
for faith is made tangible for educated fools.
This is the blessing of mercy.

Egos with flattery and well applied strokes
can swell in the mind till humility chokes.
In the end we are made out of mirrors and smoke
Pride is the enemy.

All things are illusions, hands faster than eyes
and sometimes existence is our only why
where one gal succeeds while the other won't try.
Apply your ingenuity.

I'll tell you the reason I've carried this through 
if I had but one question would you answer it true?
It's magic to me, but what is it to you?
That is the essence of empathy.

Comments/Critiques???

Happy Hiram

Admin 10.04.2011. 16:23

Okay....

I read parts 1 & 2 many times
and for some obnoxious reason (perhaps gravitational singularities are to blame)
I see Julie Andrews
bouncing on Stephens lap (off Cambridge grounds)
screaming orgazmically* <<< I just made that up
"I see a black hole Mr. H and the hills
are alive" !
.
.
Note: Equations are only deals with a devil.
.
.

Admin

Nonoy 07.04.2012. 10:48

What exactly was the root cause of World War II? Array

Nonoy

Admin 07.04.2012. 10:48

WW 2 or WW II was engineered and conducted by rich jews, using the poorer jews and letting them get killed in a considerable number to present jews as an oppressed and tyrannized nation without a country to call their own and under constant brutal genocides, all this to pave the way to invade and capture Palestine in the short future, this way the whole world would be on their side sympathising with them as they kill, torture and lay sieges on Palestinians.
The number of jews killed in all of that WW period does not exceed a quarter million,(and I am being generous here) but jews just started claiming that 6 million died in their controlled media to gain empathy. Read some passages if not all, from The International Jew by Henry Ford (Founder, owner of Ford Motor Company).
There has been attempts to deep research on the subject of the number of jews killed during WW II, but the billionaire jews in New York and other parts of the world won't let that happen at any cost.

Admin

Happy Hiram 10.04.2011. 16:18

A collaboration between HH & Love Child. Part I C/C? Self-Made Mana

To me it is the beauty that's found in the broken
a find in the woods, be it talisman or token 
a touchstone that echoes my soul's song unspoken.
That is the essence of beauty.

A stone tossed 'cross a lake, and its ripples
the pinch of December's chill on my nipples
A skater perfecting her axles and triples
That is in essence reality.

The surge of awareness of something unearthly
clinging to my grounding doubts O so perversely.
Still the eye of the full moon judges me worthy
That is essential spirituality.

The palindrome MARSRAM. The paradigm shift.
The ability to shake off my cynical pffft;
as the wind whips around me I catch my own drift
Change the incessant modality.

Subjectivity subjected to subjunctive and spun
introversity explored by three poets as one;
innuendo crescendoes in harmonic fun.
Welcome to the plurality.

Interactive empathy in hundreds of flavors
an agnostic cynic exposed as the savior.
And finding faith's zenith at an empty crater.
The now in its sanctity.

The scriptures of schoolchildren, the bell-ring of truth
the tree of morality as the fountain of youth.
The furious felinity, all claw and tooth.
Desire in all its purity.

To me it is you and your soul laid out nude
no romance of dreams but solid attitude, 
free love without physical need, raw and crude.
This is the soul's carnality.

A mind to mind, pulse to pulse linking of spirit
whose scientific measure is more than appearance
such things transcend space so embrace it don't fear it.
Two beings in unity.

In quantum mechanics a theory exists
that shared thoughts are eternally bound and space twists
into vast merging chains where iotas would be missed.
Merging our singularity.

Sub-atomic particles wrapped up in strings.
Dog bites and ribbons and even bee stings.
These are all quite undeniable things.
Parts of the cosmic bestiary.

(The rest won't fit in the space allowed, so see part II for the end of this.)

Happy Hiram

Admin 10.04.2011. 16:18

This is the best piece I 've read for a long time. No alterations, it's an insult. NO ONE should touch this. Only suggestions, maybe. Congratulations HH for managing excellent female poetry in such an abundant masculine manner. "Paradigm" a rare word, example, bravo. "Mana", is it what I think? I would say "Mitera" or "Mitir", better, more formal words. "MarsraM" I do not understand this carcenic epigraph. I am not obscure and Equilibrium Doldrum is a specific geographic location close to Equinox. Capital letter all right. Appraisal needs patience and courage. Plus, there is a bunch of very substantial non-poets in here. Why you do not characterize them? I did a few months ago.. I am not buttering up of anyone, time will come with no one visiting my site, it will be a condition of extreme happiness for a European Poet, believe me, considering the cream of the cr[o]p I read everyday in k**s @ss characterizations around here. (E, P capitals, for respect.) It is a great poem, I mean it!

Admin

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